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The paper briefly reviews the achievements and problems in Translation Studies (TS) and the practical tasks TS face at present: teaching translation on a much larger scale, educating teachers of translation, and teaching translation students to think and translate professionally and creatively. To deal with these tasks, the paper proposes a new cognitive model of translation as a professional and creative activity and its practical application. The model integrates two of the most prominent contemporary conceptions: Nikolay Ovchinnikov’s new cognitive theory of mind and Igor Mel’čuk and Jury Apresjan’s “Meaning ⇔ Text” model (of linguistic competence). The main idea of the paper is that translation is a creative linguistic activity and thus its professional acquisition needs professional and up-to-date (meta) linguistic knowledge. Special attention is paid to TS terminology, its organization and application, since the main practical burden of modern TS is to provide a teacher of translation with basic and practice-oriented linguistic and background professional knowledge and terminology helpful in encouraging students to think over translation problems consciously and purposefully.

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Metalinguistik

Sprache und Texttypen der heutigen ungarischen Folklore

Studia Slavica
Author:
Géza Balázs

The European equivalent of “anthropological linguistics” is “ethnolinguistics” or “metalinguistics”.The study proves that since the 19th century the ethnolinguistic approach is constant, although not emphatic, in the Hungarian linguistics.

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Despite the economic importance of translation work, research can hardly keep pace with current developments, especially the use of electronic resources. A growing body of literature on writing processes in various languages and domains (e.g. journalism, education) has provided insight into how professionals and students use language and language resources. However, the questions of how translators use electronic, non-electronic, and internal linguistic resources and of how novices and experts differ in this regard remain to be investigated in detail. A multi-method approach called progression analysis, which combines ethnographic observation, interviews, computer logging, screenshot recordings, and cue-based retrospective verbalizations, has been used to explore differences between novice and expert journalists and lends itself ideally to the domain of translation. Progression analysis captures diverse aspects of translation processes as students and professionals translate and revise their texts and allows us to access their metalinguistic awareness in order to gain insight into their translation competence. The realization of this awareness in different strategies for translating to and from the translator’s dominant language is highlighted for the language combination German and English, and differences between novices’ and experts’ awareness of their revision processes and resource use are identified.

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/eszem ‘eat.1 sg.indef ’). The -k/-m variation is a bona fide example of variation subject to social awareness in the Hungarian speech community and a perennial topic of metalinguistic debates in stylistics and education ( Kálmán 2010 ). The neutralising -m

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described which are often researched and are accounted for in the present study. These are gender; teaching experience; reading habits; level of education where they teach; and metalinguistic awareness as in subject areas, L2 proficiency level, number of L2s

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transcribed. The differentiation of the axis “we” vs. “they” The aim of the investigation was to demonstrate an axis of differentiation on the basis of metalinguistic comments about the Hungarian language as used in Hungary and in Slovakia with the help of

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In the present paper the author gives a brief survey of the main problems of the contrastive semantics, emphasizing the significance of the cognitive approach in this field. The article deals with similarities and differences between two languages on the level of meaning. The following questions are discussed: socio-cultural idiomatics, modes of lexicalization, the lack of equivalents, categorization and conceptualization of the meaning, metalinguistic structures as a means of the expression of the axiological information in Polish and Hungarian.

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The genre of the intimate diary is a monophonic narration par excellence; nevertheless, it will be shown that even personal genres are not exempt from the presence of others. The purpose of the paper is to examine the occurrence of polyphonic marks based on some extract of young ladies' diaries collected and published by Lejeune. The analysis reaches the conclusion that others' words appear in the form of scriptural marks like quotation marks and metalinguistic comments which make it possible for the diarists to use and refuse at the same time any discourse borrowed from their social surroundings.

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György Kurtág's vocal oeuvre is connected to lingustic criticism, which allows language only as one definite sign for information and ignores all other articulatory and pre- and metalinguistic aspects of language. These  forms of linguistic criticism have been pronounced by two fundamental lines in the 20th century. Kurtág's songs for one voice can be seen as a third stadium, which frees tonal, gestural, and rhythmic aspects of articulated and sung language by keeping the discursive character of language and not by phonetic dissociation and pulverisation. Threee central aspects are discussed: 1. Beckett's text What is the word; 2. The merging of the song for one voice from op. 30a into the instrumental piece for several voices of op. 30b; 3. Imaginary theatre in op. 30b - the concept of theatricality of non-theatrical music.

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Abstract  

Focusing on the linguistic, logical as well as literary values of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, the article studies certain issues in this classical piece of verbal art from a translational perspective in China, with special reference to Yuen Ren Chao’s translation in 1922, which highlights an array of points and helps bring a seemingly comic book under the academic limelight, directing our attention to semiotic issues in terms of metalinguistic foregrounding, witty humor, sensible malapropism, meaningful nonsense, and logical absurdity, etc. that defy translation on different levels of linguistic presentation. In view of Chao’s erudition in philosophy, mathematics, and linguistics, it discusses his expertise in reconstructing a wonderland in the Chinese context and concludes that many of the subtle yet highly logical and metalinguisitc features in Alice can make themselves more acutely felt from a cross-linguistic perspective.

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