The analysis of the world experience in the design, construction, and operation of penitentiary complexes revealed an urgent need to modernize the architectural environment of correctional institutions in post-Soviet countries. Several problems of the life of modern correctional institutions have been identified, namely: the inconsistency of the quality of their architectural environment with the modern needs of the penitentiary system; low level of adaptability and flexibility of urban planning, functional planning, and subject-spatial forms; morally outdated, emotionally negative, unaesthetic architectural and artistic image of penitentiary buildings and complexes. The purpose of this study was to identify traditional and innovative methods and means of forming an architectural and artistic image of penitentiary complexes for their further use in the field, covering their design and modernization. Based on the functional-typological and socio-psychological requirements, the criteria for harmonizing the architectural environment were determined and the patterns, methods, and means of creating a humane aesthetic architectural and artistic image of such complexes.
The etymological analysis of Slavic phraseological units offers the possibility to discover new and perspectives correspondences, as justified by the findings of Opalkova (2004) and Mokienko (2008). This study contains the analysis of areal aspects of some Slovak phraseological units that involved as a result of cultural and linguistic contacts in the Carpathian Basin. Certain parallels were found between Hungarian and Slovak phraseological units, which made a more extended investigation necessary between the transmitter and recipient languages. The investigation included the examination of European languages that had direct contact with both Hungarian and Slovak to establish the presented or lack of a given structure. In the case of the examined parallel structures it was justified that the metaphorical image of the phraseological expression is generally missing from European languages. Further parallel forms were found in Turkish that envolved as a result of Finno-Ugrian and Turkish contacts. This phenomenon entails that the Slovak phraseological units arrived in Slovak from the Hungarian. The transmission is further justified by the fact that Slovak phraseology uses words in metaphorical images borrowed from Hungarian that have a Turkish origin. This relationship could only be formed via Hungarian and Slovak contacts. This comparative analysis hopefully contributes to the systematic etymological analysis of Slovak phraseology deemed necessary by Opalkova.
makes individual pain meaningless. By representing the death wish within the overwhelming metaphoricimages of the life instinct, incorporated in the blooming of nature, Sappho and Vergil might have found the way to sublimate the death drive – as a