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Changes in the consumption habits of the population forces food industry to produce traditional products in modern ways, sometimes not taking into account the modified safety issues. The aim of this study has been to compare hazards and critical control points for traditional and industrial cremeschnitte production. The result shows that the traditional cremeschnitte production includes two additional critical control points, cooking and moulding of egg cream basis, which is essential for safety. In addition, the results of microbial analysis pointed out that the traditional cremeschnitte is safer than the industrial one produced from dried cream powder when comparing Escherichia coli, total aerobic count, and mould contamination (P<0.05). Moreover, our controlled contamination test with E. coli of raw material shows that the traditional cremeschnitte production process reduces microbiological hazard even in the worst-case scenario. All this indicates that traditional food safety practices are not granted and should not be neglected in new production technologies.

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Insects are alternative protein sources as nutritious novel food. However, there are some risks associated with the consumption of insects, even if rearing in controlled systems. Except for a recent EFSA opinion on the safety of insects as food, the European law is not conclusive regarding using insects as food products. Insects may be associated with microorganisms, but the prevalence of pathogens is usually lower than in case of other animal proteins. Insect proteins can induce allergic reactions, but only few studies are available on allergic reactions due to insect ingestion, and direct hypersensitivity to insect protein has not been proven. Some insect species are considered toxic, because some toxic substances are accumulated from toxic plants or are synthesized by the insects. However, there are few reports available about adverse reactions caused by insect consumption. Insects and insect derived food products may contain hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins, mycotoxins, plant toxins, biocides, and veterinary drugs. However, data on hazardous chemicals in reared insects and accumulation of chemical contaminants from the substrates are limited. This review is not demonstrating the safety of insects as a food category, but the possibility of insects for human consumption with no more hazards than other animal products.

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Fruits and vegetables are increasingly consumed as a part of healthy diets. They are routinely consumed raw, without any further antimicrobial processing. The aim of our studies was to determine radiation doses improving the microbial safety of fruits without diminishing quality parameters of these produce. Effects of low dose irradiation on the microbiota, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol contents, firmness and sensory properties of pre-cut apple, orange and banana were investigated. Dose of 2.0 kGy was able to reduce considerably the microbiological contamination of fruits, apple, orange, banana, but microorganisms surviving the irradiation are able to recover and grow during refrigerated storage. Two kGy was an acceptable radiation dose for the treatment of these products, having no significant effect on the mentioned quality parameters.

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At the present time, the quality, integrity, sanitation, and nutritional value of honeys receive attention on an international level due to the increasing content of chemicals in the aforementioned matrix. The present study aims to characterize organic honey (n=73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters, microbial safety, and commercial quality. All organic honey samples can be classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), exceed in quality the international physicochemical standards, and show low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds, and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to faecal coliforms, Salmonella, and sulphite-reducing clostridia. Correlating the palynological, physicochemical, and microbiological results is necessary in order to check the authenticity, quality, and sanitation of honey.

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There is a clear need for application of proper methods for measuring food quality and safety in the globalized food-webs. Numerous instrumental methods have been established in the course of the 20th century and are developing further, together with data analysis techniques, for such purposes. Among them, near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and chemical sensor arrays called electronic noses show particular promise for rapid, non-destructive, non-invasive and cost-effective ways for assessing changes and enhancing control during processing and storage of foods. Their key advantages as analytical tools are 1) their relatively high speed of analysis, 2) the lack of a need to carry out complex sample preparation or processing, 3) their relatively low cost, and 4) their suitability for on-line monitoring or quality control. The present survey attempts to demonstrate examples from the above areas, limiting itself mainly to monitoring some quality indices which contribute to the functionality or acceptability of foods as affected by alternative processing technologies, or loss of freshness/microbial safety, or developing spoilage during storage and marketing. These instrumental methods are correlative techniques: they must be calibrated first against (traditional) reference properties, and the instrumental data are evaluated with the help of chemometric methods. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used in either the reflectance or the transmittance mode. NIR spectra transformed to mathematical derivatives allows subtle spectrum changes to be resolved. Selected examples from the extensive NIRS literature relate to assessment of the quality of frozen fish, predicting cooking loss of chicken patties, detecting complex physico-chemical changes of minced meat as a function of the intensity of high hydrostatic pressure treatment, comparing changes of NIR spectrometric “fingerprints” caused by gamma radiation or high pressure pasteurization of liquid egg white. Changes of NIR spectra reflect several parameters which suit the evaluation of loss of freshness, and onset of spoilage of various foods. NIR spectroscopy shows an application potential for rapid detection of bacterial or mould contamination. It may serve as a tool for detecting initial stages of mobilization processes during germination of cereal grains, or even for GMO screening. Spectrofluorometic measurements have shown potential, e.g. to monitor lipid oxidation and development of meat rancidity, to differentiate between raw and processed milks, and to monitor fish and egg freshness. Electronic noses containing chemical sensor arrays offer a rapid method for evaluation of head-space volatiles of food samples, important for characterizing quality and safety. Such gas sensors may be able to classify storage time, and determine spoilage, either earlier or at the same time as the human senses, or “sniffing out” bacterial pathogens or (toxigenic) fungal growth on certain foods. Electronic nose sensing is also a promising method for detecting quality changes of fruit- and vegetable products non-destructively. In relation to some examples to be presented in the paper, certain software developments as qualitative classification tools made by Hungarian scientists will be pointed out.

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preservatives on microbial safety and quality of smoked blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus ) steaks during roomtemperature storage . Food Microbiol. , 25 , 958 – 963 . E fiuvwevwere , B.J. & A jiboye , M

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Rady, A.H., Khalaf, H.H, Afifi, E.A. & Nasr, E.H. (2002): Improving the microbial safety and quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation. Isotope and Radiation Research , 34 , 305–313. Nasr E

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Authors: S. Aguilar-Rosas, M. Ballinas-Casarrubias, L. Elias-Ogaz, O. Martin-Belloso and E. Ortega-Rivas

Evrendilek, G.A., Jin, Z.T., Ruhlman, K.T., Qiu, X., Zhang, Q.H. & Richter, E.R. (2000): Microbial safety and shelf life of apple juice and cider processed by bench and pilot scale PEF systems. Innov. Fd Sci. Emerging Technol. , 1 , 77

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Authors: M.I. Piñon, A.D. Alarcon-Rojo, A.L. Renteria, G. Mendez and H. Janacua-Vidales

. Haughton , P. , Lyng , J. , Morgan , D. , Cronin , D. , Noci , F. , Fanning , S. & Whyte , P. 2010 : An evaluation of the potential of high-intensity ultrasound for improving the microbial safety of poultry . Food

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