Kádár, I., H. Daood 2001: Mikroelem-terhelés hatása a búzára karbonátos csernozjom talajon (The effect of microelement loads on wheat grown on calcareous chernozem soil). - Agrokémia és Talajtan, 50, pp. 353
, J. (1995): Production and application of microelement enriched yeasts. (Xth Conference on Food Science, Abstracts.) Acta Alimentaria , 24 , 99.
Production and application of microelement enriched yeasts. (Xth Conference on
Authors:E. Milinki, Sz. Molnár, A. Kiss, D. Virág, and E. Pénzes-Kónya
Consumption of microalgae might be regarded as one of the key elements of nutrition of the future, as they are highly abundant in bioactive components. As a consequence examinations on fortification and enhancement of the original biological value of microalgae are in the forefront of interest. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, constituted the focus point of our research, being a fairly frequent species available and purchasable in commerce. Emphasis was laid on investigation of extent of microelements’ bioaccumulation in cases of (Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI)), in growth media containing diverse amounts of the metals. Bioaccumulating capability of Chlorella vulgaris was excellent in case of iron, which was studied with a two-week-long experiment in order to get information about the applicability of this alga species for production of functional food with enhanced microelement content. Metal-accumulating capacity of alginic acid being one of the major components of algae was also examined. Adsorption of Fe(II) to alginic acid was the weakest in comparison with copper(II), zinc(II), chromium(III) and chromium(VI).For the estimation of bioavailability of the algae-bound metals, in vitro digestion model experiments have been performed, pointing out that the available amounts of Fe(II) and Zn(II) are considerably higher than that of Cu(II). The studied microalga with high alginic acid content is suitable for application in microelement fortified functional foodstuffs due to the observed pronounced bioaccumulating feature.
Authors:E. Blicharska, Ł. Komsta, R. Kocjan, A. Gumieniczek, A. Kloc, and J. Kaźmierczak
The paper discusses a possibility to grow seeds on solutions of microelements and application of sprouts enriched in such a way as an alternative to commercial dietary supplements. It contains a short review of the approaches reported till now and a systematic experimental study, carried on the most frequently used seeds (Lens culinaris, Helianthus annuus, Vigna radiata, Glycine max, and Lepidium sativum).Seven metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Mn) were studied. Seeds were grown on cellulose in 20°C temperature using deionized water enriched with metals in concentrations: 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/L in a period of 4 days. The reference samples were the seeds grown on pure deionized water. Sprouts were mineralized by microwave radiation, and the metal content was quantified by ion chromatography with on-line post-column derivatization and spectrophotometric detection.The conclusions can be treated as general recommendations, which seeds should be grown and what concentrations of metals in solutions should be applied to provide good enrichment and to avoid risk of microelement overdose.
Authors:L. Biró, M. Szeitz-Szabó, Gy. Biró, and J. Sali
The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.
Gyori , D.
1984 . A talaj termékenysége (Soil fertility) . In: Szabó , S.A. , Regusiné , M. , Csényi , Á. , Gyori , D. (eds), Mikroelemek a mezogazdaságban (Microelements in Agriculture) . Mezogazdasági Kiadó. Budapest
Tobacco plant is known to easily absorb heavy metals from soil and accumulate them in leaves. Part of these metals is transferred by the smoke into the human body, where they accumulate, damage the organs (mainly kidney and liver) and act as promoters in conjunction with carcinogens. Application of the essential elements can be effective in the prevention of toxicity and curative manner against the negative effects of toxic heavy metals. Reducing the harmful health effects of tobacco smoke is one of the major tasks of our research. Essential elements, first of all Zn and Fe, were added in an artificial way on tobacco-cut so that these elements should pass by the smoke to the smokers' bodies. The toxic metal content of our tobacco-sample was consistent with other data published in international literature (Cd: 1.55 mg g –1; Pb: 1.51 mg g –1). The transfer rates of these metals from tobacco-cut to smoke were significant (Cd: 15–34%; Pb: 8–20%). Twenty-thirty percent of the artificially added Zn and 10–23% of Fe transfer into the smoke was mainly in total particulate matter (TPM). The transmission of Zn to the smoke seems not to be dependent on temperature of smoke formation. However, higher Fe concentration was detected in smoke forming at 600 °C than at 900 °C. The more considerable part of Zn and Fe can be found in the ash. __