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. Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Current Opinion in Plant Biol. 11 : 166–170. Beyer P. Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition

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The appearance of Fusarium species and the micronutrient content of pea varieties were investigated in different plant development periods. Field experiments were carried out for three years on six dry pea varieties grown without irrigation on a soil infected with Fusarium species. Green and dry plants divided into shoots (including stems and leaves), pods and seeds were used to determine the presence of Fusarium species and the concentration of micro- and macroelements. In the green shoots and seeds of varieties registered as susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum, other species such as F. solani and F. culmorum were also detected. F. oxysporum and F. solani were found in the dry seeds not only in varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum but in resistant ones as well. In the case of susceptible varieties the phosphorus and nickel contents in the flowering plants decreased significantly compared to those in varieties registered as resistant to F. oxysporum. In later stages of plant development the K and Mo contents increased significantly in the green shoots and the accumulation of Mn and Mo in the green seeds intensified. The very low B concentration in the dry pods contributed to the internal infection of dry seeds by decreasing the stability of the cell wall. In the dry seeds of varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum a considerable decrease in the S content was found parallel with marked increases in the Mo and Mn contents. The sugar content of green seeds decreased significantly in peas susceptible to F. oxysporum, but neither the protein, nor the starch or sugar contents of the dry seeds decreased in comparison to the resistant ones.

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The present investigation was conducted to investigate the impact of bio-inoculants on the magnitude and direction of gene effects and mean performance for root length density, root biomass per plant, AMF colonization in roots and micronutrient uptake (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in wheat under low input field conditions. The material for study comprised three wheat cultivars, WH 147 (low mineral input), WH 533 (drought-tolerant), Raj 3077 (high mineral input) and six generations (P 1 , P 2 , F 1 , F 2 , BC 1 and BC 2 ) of three crosses, namely WH 147 × WH 533, WH 533 × Raj 3077 and WH 147 × Raj 3077. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications having three treatments, i.e. (i) control; (ii) inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus fasciculatum ); (iii) dual inoculation with AMF and Azotobacter chroococcum ( Azc ). The fertilizer doses in all three treatments were 80 kg N + 40 kg P + 18 kg ZnSO 4 ha −1 . Root length density, root biomass per plant, AMF colonization in roots and Zn and Mn content were found to be maximum after dual inoculation with AMF+ Azc in all three crosses. Joint scaling tests revealed that additive-dominance gene effects were mainly operative in governing the expression of root biomass, Cu and Zn content in all three crosses for all three treatments (i.e. control, AMF and AMF + Azc ). Pedigree selection in crosses WH 147 × WH 533 and WH 147 × Raj 3077 could be effective for breeding pure lines of wheat for sustainable agriculture (low input genotypes responsive to biofertilizers such as AMF and Azotobacter ).

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Gábor Zajkás, Lajos Bíró, Erika Greiner, Ildikó Szórád, Helga Ágoston, Anikó Balázs, József Vitrai, Dóra Hermann, Julianna Boros, Renáta Németh, Zsuzsanna Kéki and Éva Martos

A harmadik hazai országos táplálkozási vizsgálat az Országos Lakossági Egészségfelmérés (OLEF) keretében valósult meg, ennek megfelelően az adatfelvétel 2003 november–decemberében történt. A vizsgálat 19 éven felüliekre terjedt ki, 1179 fő táplálkozási adatfelvétele volt értékelhető, az energia- és makrotápanyag-beviteli eredmények 2005-ben, az ásványianyag-beviteli adatok 2007-ben az Orvosi Hetilapban kerültek közlésre, ezúttal a vitaminbevitel bemutatására kerül sor. Az eredmények értékeléséhez a szerzők felhasználják a két korábbi hazai és hasonló külföldi vizsgálatok adatait, valamint a magyar és nemzetközi tápanyag-beviteli ajánlásokat. Az eredmények közül kedvezőnek ítélhető az ajánlásoknak mindkét nemben megfelelő retinolekvivalens-, B 1 -, B 6 -, B 12 -vitamin- és niacin-, biotin-, valamint a férfiak esetében emellett az elegendő E-vitamin-bevitel. Kedvezőtlennek minősül a jelenlegi vizsgálatban mindkét nemben elégtelen B 2 -, C- és D-vitamin-, valamint pantoténsav-bevitel, továbbá a folátok ajánlott mennyiségnél kisebb átlagos bevitele és emellett a nők elégtelen E-vitamin-bevitele. Magyarországon először ebben a táplálkozási vizsgálatban került sor D-vitamin, biotin, pantoténsav és folátok bevitelének meghatározására. A szerzők nyomatékosan hangsúlyozzák a kellően változatos és egészséges táplálkozás jelentőségét a lakosság megfelelő vitaminellátottsága érdekében.

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2003 19 291 297 Davis, J. G., Rhoads, F. M. (1994): Micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities. In: Research-Based Soil Testing

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. 2007 . Multiple QTL-effects of wheat Gpc-B1 locus on grain protein and micronutrient concentration . Physiol. Plant. 129 : 635 – 643 . Gallo , G. , Lo Bianco , M. , Bognanni , R

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References Allen , L. , de Benoist , B. , Dary , O. , Hurrell , R. 2006 . Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients . World Health Organisation

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Rattan, R.K., Saharan, N. and Datta, S.P. (1999) Micronutrient depletion in Indian soils, extent, causes and remedies. Fert.News 44:35–40. Datta S.P. Micronutrient depletion in Indian

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The present paper reports that significant genetic variability was evident in Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and phytic acid (phytate, PA) contents in a set of 39 diverse maize genotypes collected from maize breeding programme of hill agriculture, India. The Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and PA concentrations were found to be in the range 19.31–50.64 mg kg−1, 12.60–37.18 mg kg−1, 0.17–8.27 µg g−1, and 6.59–7.13 g kg−1, respectively. The genotypes V335, V420, V393, V416, V414, V372, and V351 were identified to have higher concentration of β-carotene, Fe, and Zn but lower amount of PA. Possible availability of the minerals Fe and Zn was determined using molar ratio between PA as inhibitor and β-carotene as promoter for their absorption. The micronutrient molar ratio showed that Fe and Zn traits could be dependent of each other. Low R2 value revealed relation between β-carotene and kernel colour. The selected genotypes could be considered as potential sources of favourable genes for further breeding programs to develop micronutrient enriched maize cultivars.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.T. Xue, A. Gianinetti, R. Wang, Z.J. Zhan, J. Yan, Y. Jiang, T. Fahima, G. Zhao and J.P. Cheng

Crop seeds are the main staples in human diet, especially in undeveloped countries. In any case, the diet needs to be rich not only in macro-nutrients like carbohydrates and protein, but also in micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, both the macro- and micro-nutrients presented in seeds largely vary in consequence of field and environment conditions. In this research, 60 lines of a barley RILs population segregating for the SSR marker Hvm74, which is genetically linked to the GPC (grain protein content) locus (HvNAM-1), were studied in 4 environments (two growing years and two field managements) by carrying out a comprehensive profile of seed macro- (starch, total nitrogen and total soluble protein) and micro-nutrients (phytate, phenolics, flavonoids, Pi, Zn and Fe). Under field conditions, all the components were largely affected by the environment, but TN (total nitrogen) exhibited high genotype contribution, while micro-nutrients displayed higher genotype × environments interactions (GEI) than macro-nutrients. In order to approach the effects of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) balance on other seed components, two C/N ratios were calculated: C/TN (CNR1) and C/TSP (CNR2). CNR2 exhibited stronger negative correlations with all micro-nutrients. Hence, the significant GEI and its negative relationships with CNR2 highlighted the different characters of micro-nutrients in barley seeds.

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