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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
K. Berisha
,
H. Bytyçi
,
Zs. Mednyánszky
,
E. Kiss
, and
L. Simon-Sarkadi

Busha cattle breed are widespread in Kosovo: the Sharri Busha and the Dukagjini Busha. They produce an average of 1,322 kg milk in the lactation period ( Krasniqi et al., 2013 ). The smaller Sharri Busha has a lower somatic cell count in its milk (72

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References 1. Drewnowski A : The contribution of milk and milk products to micronutrient density and affordability of the

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Badea , M., Micheli , L., Messia , C.M., Candigliota , T., Marconi , E., Mottram , T., Velasco-Garcia , M., Moscone , D. & Palleschi , G. (2004): Aflatoxin M1 determination in raw milk using

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Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of total gangliosides in dairy products and to determine whether there is a significant difference in comparison to concentration of gangliosides in cow’s milk. The concentration of total gangliosides in dairy products was significantly higher than concentration in cow’s milk. The highest concentration of gangliosides was determined in yogurt with 3.2% of milk fat.

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or watered with contaminated water, and partially through the inhalation of polluted air. Their levels in milk have resulted in significant health problems ( Hjortenkrans et al., 2008 ; Khan et al., 2008 ; Bilgücü et al., 2016 ; Durkalec et

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Abstract  

Headspace analysis by means of sensor arrays has been successfully applied to a wide range of qualitative applications. In this study, a six element array of coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors was used for the headspace analysis of milk volatiles. The sensors were exposed to uncontaminated samples of milk and samples contaminated with Pseudomonas fragi (Ps. fragi) or Escherichia coli (E. coli). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse the sensor array responses. No discrimination between uncontaminated milk samples and those contaminated with Ps. fragi was observed. This can be explained by Ps. fragi being a poor fermenter of milk. However, encouraging results were found for the discrimination between the milk samples and those contaminated with E. coli.

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Even if plants can contain high levels of nitrate and nitrite, milk and dairy products are not described as sources of these anions. The purpose of this paper was to measure the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in forage, cow blood, and milk.The results show that the nitrate ratio of milk to plasma is very low, suggesting that milk contamination with nitrate is unlikely to occur. This finding also proves the lack of an active transport mechanism to transfer nitrate from blood to milk. The nitrite anion almost disappears from milk through an enzymatic conversion; usually levels of μg l−1 were measured.

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This study was performed to evaluate the effect of lactococcin BZ and enterocin KP against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in skim (0.1%), half (1.5%), and full fat (3.0%) UHT milks. The milk samples were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at the level of approximately 2.60, 4.76, and 6.45 log CFU ml−1, and then treated with various concentrations (400, 800, 1600, or 2500 AU ml−1) of lactococcin BZ, enterocin KP, or their combination (1:1). Lactococcin BZ at 400–2500 AU ml−1 level displayed strong antilisterial activity, and decreased the viable cell numbers of L. monocytogenes to an undetectable level in all types of milk samples during the entire storage periods at 4 °C or 20 °C. Enterocin KP also had a high antilisterial effect, but it decreased as both the fat content of milk and inoculation amount of L. monocytogenes increased.

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The chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol content of milk fat were analysed during the lactation period of thirty Iranian Ghezel sheep. They were fed dry hay for the first three months and then grazed on fresh grass to the end of lactation, along with barley and wheat middling during the whole period. Fatty acid profile analysis showed palmitic acid to be the dominant fatty acid (45.24±1.88%). During lactation C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 contents decreased, while C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and CLA increased significantly, which can be associated with the change of nutrition from hay to fresh grazing. The cholesterol content of the sheep milk reached 14.88 mg/100 ml milk or 283.43 mg/100 g fat as an average for the whole period of milking. Regression analysis showed a significant increase in cholesterol from 5.42 to 32.87 mg/100 g milk during the lactation period.

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Summary

The quantitative analysis of antibiotics in different matrices is of increasing importance in in vitro studies of food-drug interactions in the drug-development process. Our objective was to develop a new, rapid and simple solid-phase extraction method without protein precipitation followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for analysis of ciprofloxacin in low- and high-fat milk. The HPLC-MS method (a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source was used as detector) was validated using a quinolone derivative, aripiprazole, as internal standard. A C8 column and gradient elution with 0.02 m ammonium acetate solution (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile mixtures (flow rate 0.5 mL min−1) were used for HPLC separation. Various modes of detection (diode-array detection and MS detection in scanning and selected-ion monitoring modes) were compared for selectivity and sensitivity of quantitative analysis of ciprofloxacin. Use of selected- ion monitoring resulted in a 1600:1 signal-to-noise ratio which can be successfully applied to milk matrices resulting in a lower limit of detection of 0.4 ng mL−1 and a lower limit of quantification of 4.0 ng mL−1. Recovery was 99.06 ± 0.15 and 98.57 ± 0.14% for low- and high-fat milk, respectively. The method enables analysis of the free, biologically available, amount of ciprofloxacin in in vitro simulation of milk-ciprofloxacin interaction studies.

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