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role is in the milling and baking industry, as the basic raw material ( Ragasits, 1998 ). The grading based on kernel hardness is extremely important for milling and other industries as well. The most important and the highest energy-consuming operation

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Abstract  

In this paper we compare the solid-state transformations upon room temperature milling of four sugars: lactose, trehalose, mannitol and sorbitol. The two disaccharides (lactose and trehalose) are found to undergo a direct transformation from crystal to glass while the two sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) are found to undergo polymorphic transformations. The origin of these different behaviors is discussed and ascribed to the relative position of the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous states with respect to the milling temperature. This point was also finely studied through co-milling experiments of lactose and mannitol. These two compounds having their glass transition respectively above and below room temperature the T g of the mixture can be conveniently tuned on either side of the milling temperature by varying the concentrations.

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The influence of three milling techniques (MT1: industrial roller-grinder, MT2: grain hammer crasher, and MT3: traditional millstone) and two baking methods (BM1: industrial oven, BM2: traditional ceramic stove heated by wood (log fire oven)) on mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) levels in bread were investigated. The DON and NIV concentrations in wheat grain, flour, and bread were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection methods. The 2 500 kg lot of wheat grain containing 1 400–1 900 μg kg −1 deoxynivalenol and 130–200 μg kg −1 nivalenol was divided into sub-lots which were processed to get three types of flour (F1: industrial bread flour, F2: industrial wholegrain flour and F3: traditional wholegrain flour). The concentrations of DON and NIV measured after milling the grain according to MT1 (yielding F1) amounted to 310–370 \g kg −1 and <50–70 μg kg t1 , respectively. After applying MT2 to the grain (yielding F2), the DON and NIV levels were measured to be 1 060–1 400 μg kg −1 and 60–87 μg kg −1 , respectively. Applying MT3 (yielding F3) produced a DON level of 1 100–1 770 μg kg 1 and a NIV level of 80–95 μg kg −1 . Six types of bread were baked from the three types of flour according to BM1 or BM2, and the mycotoxin levels were analysed. The average reduction in DON concentration after baking (70 min at 195–235 °C) was 47.2% for bread baked in the industrial oven and 48.7% for bread baked in the log fire oven. Concentrations of DON in bread prepared by the industrial MT1 were under the permitted limit of 500 μg kg −1 stated in EC (2006) regulation, despite the fact that the bread was baked from grains highly contaminated with mycotoxins. In the bread baked from traditional wholegrain flour, mycotoxin concentrations were higher (850–950 μg kg −1 ).

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, J., McCorquodale, J., Osborne, B.G. (2000). Comparative studies on a new micro scale laboratory mill. In: Panozzo, J., Radcliffe, M., Wootton, M., Wrigley, C.W. (eds), Cereals 1999. Proc. 49 th Aust. Cereal Chem. Conf. Royal Aust. Chem. Instit

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Al-Rabadi, G.J.S., Gilbert, R.G., Gidley, M.J. 2009. Effect of particle size on kinetics of starch digestion in milled barley and sorghum grains by porcine alpha-amylase. J. Cereal Sci. 50 :198

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allelic composition, dough rheology, and baking characteristics of flour mill streams from wheat cultivars with known and varied baking qualities. Cereal Chem. 79 :720–725. Ivanoski M

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Allison, M.J., Cowe, I.A., Borzucki, R., Bruce, F.M., McHale, R. 1979. Milling energy of barley. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 85 :262–264. McHale R

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2 O 3 are widely studied [ 9 – 11 ]. High energy ball-milling is a low cost, simple operation method for preparing extended solid solutions and nanoparticle systems. To the best of our knowledge, there is no literature available on the ball-milling

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Resolution and Discovery
Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, T. Ferenczi, and A. Roósz

. Dutkiewicz J , Jaworska L , MaziarzW, Czeppe T , Lejkowska M , Kubicek M , Pastrnák M : Consolidation of amorphous ball-milled Zr–Cu–Al and Zr–Ni–Ti–Cu powders . J Alloys Compd 434–435 , 333 – 335 ( 2007

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starch granule size distribution on milling yield in hard wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 48 :180–192. Henry R.J. Effect of endosperm starch granule size distribution on milling yield in hard

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