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Guthrie, F.B. 1895. Notes on the milling qualities of different varieties of wheat. Agric. Gazette NSW 6 :159–180. Guthrie F.B. Notes on the milling qualities of different varieties of

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kernel, and also increases used energy efficiency. In the initial trials, condition for modified microwave drying of paddy was optimised, and its effect on milling quality and energy efficiency of paddy was studied (data not shown). These results prompted

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particle size, protein content, chlorine response, kernel hardness, milling quality, white layer cake volume, and sugar-snap coolie spread . Cereal Chem. 62 : 290 – 292 . Greffeuille , V

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Hybrid rice varieties have clearly shown a 1–1.5 t/ha yield advantage over semi-dwarf inbred high-yielding varieties in China and other countries. No information about the performance of hybrid rice varieties in rice-producing European countries been reported, however. Three previously selected Indica hybrid varieties from China (SYRC-86, SYRC-89 and SYRC-90), and two Indica check varieties (L-202 and Doongara) were evaluated in southern Spain. Various agronomic performance indicators including days to heading, plant height, grain moisture at harvest, yield components, grain yield and milling quality were recorded. Plant height and 1000-grain weight were found to be significantly greater in the hybrids, the yields of which exceeded those of the high-yielding check varieties by 10–20%. By contrast, head rice recovery was 7–10% lower in the hybrids than in the check varieties. The optimum seeding rate for the hybrids was about 75–90 kg/ha.

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Waterlogging stress frequently affects wheat production in the current conditions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of waterlogging during grain filling on grain yield components, nitrogen uptake and partitioning and gluten composition and quality in bread wheat. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted under contrasting environmental conditions in Azul, Buenos Aires, in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The cultivar chosen was Klein León and the waterlogging treatment was imposed from 5 days after anthesis to maturity. The effects of waterlogging during grain filling in wheat depended on explored environmental conditions: early sowing vs. late sowing. Waterlogging had not significant effects on the most variables at early sowing conditions. However, the delaying in sowing date (higher temperature and radiation) enhance the effects of waterlogging: i) reducing grain weight by 41% and total nitrogen uptake by 51%; ii) reducing the ratio between the contents of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, affecting gluten composition; and iii) increasing the sodium dodecyl sulfate test from 79 to 108 mm, which correlates positively with the gluten strength. Reductions in grain weight due to waterlogging during grain filling affect the milling quality, although changes in protein composition may increase or maintain the gluten strength (SDSS) under particular conditions.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
A. Comeau
,
F. Langevin
,
V. Caetano
,
S. Haber
,
M. Savard
,
H. Voldeng
,
G. Fedak
,
Y. Dion
,
S. Rioux
,
J. Gilbert
,
D. Somers
, and
R. Martin

It has proven to be an enduring and difficult challenge to generate useful germplasm that resists fusarium head blight (FHB) as effectively as Sumai 3. While focussed genetic approaches may follow a clear path to a well-defined goal of resistance, they run the risk of worsening traits not selected for. It was commonly believed that selecting for good performance under pressure from multiple diseases plus abiotic stress should be a harder task than focussing on the single goal of FHB resistance; and yet the complex, systemic approaches have now been shown to be capable of rapid progress. Moreover, the risks of worsening non-selected traits are lessened, because the selection matrices favour genes, or groups of genes, that are free of major defects arising from linkage or pleiotropy. However, even at the pre-breeding level, environments are needed that stress the tested germplasm abiotically and with multiple diseases, as a broad array of traits must be examined at the same time. Since as much as 98–99% of any population may need to be discarded, the widest possible genetic range of diversity should be investigated. As seen in several bread wheat examples, the critical factors that allow for rapid selection of germplasm resistant to most stresses are: a) use of an extensive range of available biodiversity; b) well-designed planning of numerous crosses; c) the astute application of combinations of biotic and abiotic stresses; and d) fast recycling of multiple-resistant lines into crossing blocks. Analyses of our first attempts (2003–07) with such systemic approaches show that as early as F1-F3, germplasm with minimal defects and resistant to the multiple biotic and abiotic stresses can be selected. This ability to identify and advance trait packages rather than just individual traits also improves efficiency for breeders. The selected germplasm resisted well all diseases of concern in Eastern Canada: FHB, barley yellow dwarf (BYD), rusts, powdery mildew, leaf spots, and root diseases. The best (e.g. FL62R1) had FHB resistance near equivalent to Sumai 3 while displaying good yield potential and agronomic traits. Milling quality still falls short of desired levels, but was a good improvement over Sumai 3. The systemic approach, so described because it integrates the pursuit of multiple traits in complex environments, has now demonstrated, in a Canadian setting, the success achieved earlier in Brazil. This confirmation and extension of the utility of systemic approaches support the case for their wider application.

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, protein content, chlorine response, kernel hardness, milling quality, white layer cake volume, and sugar-snap coolie spread. Cereal Chem. 62:290–292. Gaines C.S. Association among soft

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. Leesawatwong , M. , Jamjod , S. , Kuo , J. , Dell , B. , Rerkasem , B. 2005 . Nitrogen fertilizer increases seed protein and milling quality of rice . Cereal Chem. 82 : 588 – 593

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1984 Govindswamy, S., Ghosh, A.K. 1969. The time of harvest, moisture content and method of drying on milling quality of rice. Oryza 6 :54

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Blanche, S.B., Utomo, H.S., Wenefrida, I., Myers, G.O. 2009. Genotype × environment interactions of hybrid and varietal rice cultivars for grain yield and milling quality. Crop Sci. 49 :2011–2018. Myers G

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