Authors:V. Tomović, Lj. Petrović, M. Jokanović, M. Tomović, Ž. Kevrešan, T. Tasić, P. Ikonić, B. Šojić, S. Škaljac, and M. Šošo
Concentration of phosphorous (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) was determined in the kidney tissue of sixty-nine pigs belonging to ten different genetic lines of pigs, produced in Vojvodina (northern Serbia). Phosphorous was determined by the standard spectrophotometric method. Metals were determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralization by dry ashing. The order of the minerals in the kidney tissue and their content ranges in mg/100 g was P (246–347, on average 287) > K (142–236, on average 189) > Na (102–187, on average 130) > Mg (17.8–36.6, on average 23.3) > Ca (15.9–27.7, on average 20.2) > Fe (5.32–10.42, on average 7.42) > Zn (2.15–4.10, on average 2.99) > Cu (0.62–2.15, on average 1.29) > Mn (0.16–0.30, on average 0.22). Genetic lines of pigs had no influence on mineral concentrations of kidney (P>0.05). The Vojvodian pig kidney showed slightly lower K, slightly higher P and Mn, and higher Ca contents, compared to the values reported in the literature.
Authors:József Szabó, András Vucskits, Emese Andrásofszky, Erzsébet Berta, András Bersényi, László Börzsönyi, Vilmos Pálfi, and István Hullár
The aim of this study was to assess the age-related effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on the performance, immune response (from day 0 to 42) and macromineral content of femur ash of broilers. The DEB values of the purchased commercial broiler diets were modified with the addition of NH4Cl or NaHCO3 to formulate the diets (DEB 325, 250, 175, 100, 25 and −50 mmol/kg) for this investigation. A total of 396 chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups and fed with the experimental diets for 6 weeks. During the first two weeks of life, DEB did not influence feed intake and body weight gain; however, by the 21st day of age DEB 175 and between 22 and 42 days of age DEB 250 mmol/kg gave significantly better results than the control. DEB did not affect the macromineral concentrations of bone ash. The immune response of broilers on low DEB (< 175 mmol/kg) was faster and more intensive than that of chickens on diets with medium or high DEB (> 175 mmol/kg). It can be concluded that the optimal DEB value required for the best body weight gain is significantly influenced by the age of broilers. Our results call attention to the discrepancy between the decreasing DEB level of commercial broiler diets and the age-related increase of ‘electrolyte requirements’ of broilers. It is also interesting that DEB may influence not only the performance but also the immune response of broilers.
Authors:F. Sciacca, M. Allegra, S. Licciardello, G. Roccuzzo, B. Torrisi, N. Virzì, M. Brambilla, E. Romano, and M. Palumbo
The selection process has caused modern durum wheat cultivars to achieve higher yields with different protein quality but also to have low micronutrient amounts. In order to evaluate the suitability of germplasm for the recovery of such nutrient content, macro- and microelements concentrations in twelve ancient Sicilian durum wheat landraces and in three modern cultivars were compared. According to the results, the substantial differences in macro- and micro-element concentrations between the two groups of wheat genotypes suggest ancient Sicilian landraces can effectively represent a suitable genetic material for biofortification plans of micronutrients in modern varieties.
. S. , Adeleye , B. G. and Teeter , R. G. ( 1995 ): The effect of heat distress environment, vitamin, and trace mineral supplementation on performance, blood constituents, and tissue mineralconcentrations in broiler chickens . Nutr. Research
In-vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) has been used in this laboratory, approximately for the past twenty years, to determine the bone status of humans. For this purpose, the total body calcium (TBCa) is assayed and that is indicative of the bone mineral concentration of the individual. We have effectively used this method to diagnose, understand and monitor the treatment of osteoporosis among elderly women, particularly in post-menopausal women. This paper summarizes the technique and our experience in dealing with osteoporosis.
In deserts, biological processes decrease at the end of the vegetation period by lack of soil moisture and increasing heat. Important processes for plant nutrient uptake are negatively affected like N fixation, litter decomposition and denitrification. Desert plants must therefore adapt their mineral household towards best use of available nutrients and storage of minerals in perennial organs. Here we studied this pattern by experiments of the effect of nitrogen nutrition on mineral concentration and plant growth of Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb. Berth for two years in sand culture. In summary, the mineral household of R raetam seems to be well adapted to unfavourable desert habitat independent from the N source and N level.
Authors:M. Armelin, R. Ávila, R. Piasentin, and M. Saiki
The supplement effect of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn chelated with glycine on the absorption of these elements by animals was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by comparing the mineral concentrations found in hair of the animals before and after 47 days of supplementation with a combination of glycine-mineral chelates. Five horses known to be clinically well were used for this study. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations in the horse hair samples. It was observed that the supplementation helps the Fe, K and Zn absorption by the animal organism. The data obtained suggest that the hair is a suitable material to investigate Fe, K and Zn in mineral metabolism in the animal organism.
Triticum dicoccoides, wild emmer wheat, is the direct progenitor of cultivated wheats, has the same genome formula as durum wheat, and has contributed two genomes to bread wheat. It harbors many useful genes, more than can be used for wheat improvement. These genes are associated with many agronomic traits, abiotic stress tolerances, biotic stress resistances, grain protein content and micronutrient mineral concentrations. In this review, we summarized the achievements regarding gene discovery, i.e. gene identification, mapping and cloning in wild emmer wheat. These genes, controlling important agronomic traits, disease resistance, drought tolerance, high protein content and micronutrient mineral content, should be very useful for improvement of wheat production and food nutrition. However, the majority of genetic resources in wild emmer remain untapped, demonstrating the need for further exploration and utilization for wheat breeding programs. The large number of molecular markers, genomics tools and efficient cloning techniques available for wheat will greatly accelerate the application of wild emmer germplasm to wheat improvement and ensure sustainability of global wheat production.
Authors:Z. M. H. Kheiralla, S. S. Maklad, Sanaa Mohamed Ashour, and E. El-Sayed Moustafa
The study of the bacteriological profile, the association of complement C3, interleukin-1beta, and zinc therapy of diabetic foot ulcers (type two) was investigated. Twenty diabetics without foot ulcers (group I), 50 diabetics with foot ulcers (group II), and 10 matched normal controls (group III) were enrolled in this study. Diabetic foot ulcers were mostly of grade 2. The most frequent organisms were Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively. Vancomycin, Imipenem, and Meropenem were the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes, while Imipenem, Meropenem and Chloramphenicol for Gram-positive anaerobes. Group II had abnormal levels of C3 (72%). A significant higher concentration of C3 was found in group II. Group II had abnormal levels of IL-1β (60%). A significant higher concentration of IL-1β was found in group II. Zinc therapy (25 mg/day/oral) induced a highly significant decrease in the frequency of Gram-positive anaerobes and levels of IL-1β. Significantly increases all mineral concentrations in serum level except Mn+2. The study highlights the prevalence of antibiotic multidrug resistant bacteria causing foot infections in diabetics which require combined antimicrobial therapy. Altered levels of serum complement C3 and IL-1β might be responsible for depressed immune response which might be causes for delayed wound healing and repeated infections. Zinc supplementation may help in healing the wounds by enhancing the immune response.
Authors:J.S. Khokhar, S. Sareen, B.S. Tyagi, L. Wilson, I.P. King, S.D. Young, and M.R. Broadley
Correlations between juvenile wheat root traits, and grain yield and yield component traits under optimal field conditions have previously been reported in some conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile wheat root traits correlate with yield, yield components and grain mineral composition traits under a range of soil environments in India. A diverse panel of 36 Indian wheat genotypes were grown for ten days in ‘pouch and wick’ high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) system (20 replicates). Correlations between juvenile root architecture traits, including primary and lateral root length, and grain yield, yield components and grain mineral composition traits were determined, using field data from previously published experiments at six sites in India. Only a limited number of juvenile root traits correlated with grain yield (GYD), yield components, and grain mineral composition traits. A narrow root angle, potentially representing a ‘steep’ phenotype, was associated with increased GYD and harvest index (HI) averaged across sites and years. Length related root traits were not correlated with GYD or HI at most sites, however, the total length of lateral roots and lateral root number correlated with GYD at a sodic site of pH 9.5. The total length of lateral roots (TLLR) correlated with grain zinc (Zn) concentration at one site. A wider root angle, representing a shallow root system, correlated with grain iron (Fe) concentration at most sites. The total length of all roots (TLAR) and total length of primary roots (TLPR) correlated with grain S concentration at most sites. Narrow root angle in juvenile plants could be a useful proxy trait for screening germplasm for improved grain yield. Lateral root and shallow root traits could potentially be used to improve grain mineral concentrations. The use of juvenile root traits should be explored further in wheat breeding for diverse environments.