Authors:Y. Duan, J. Li, X. Yang, X. Cao, L. Hu, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, and C. Wang
The thermal decomposition of strontium acetate hemihydrate has been studied by TG-DTA/DSC and TG coupled with Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under non-isothermal conditions in nitrogen gas from ambient temperature to 600°C. The TG-DTA/DSC
experiments indicate the decomposition goes mainly through two steps: the dehydration and the subsequent decomposition of
anhydrous strontium acetate into strontium carbonate. TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved products from the non-oxidative thermal
degradation indicates mainly the release of water, acetone and carbon dioxide. The model-free isoconversional methods are
employed to calculate the Ea of both steps at different conversion α from 0.1 to 0.9 with increment of 0.05. The relative constant apparent Ea values during dehydration (0.5<α<0.9) of strontium acetate hemihydrate and decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate (0.5<α<0.9)
suggest that the simplex reactions involved in the corresponding thermal events. The most probable kinetic models during dehydration
and decomposition have been estimated by means of the master plots method.
Authors:Marta Otero, X. Gómez, A. García, and A. Morán
The combustion of two different sewage sludges and a semianthracite coal was studied and compared by thermogravimetric analysis.
Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential
factor) of the combustion of these carbonaceous materials. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional
methods for evaluating and comparing the corresponding activation energy of the combustion process.
Authors:R. López-Fonseca, I. Landa, M. A. Gutiérrez-Ortiz, and J. R. González-Velasco
Summary Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential factor) of the combustion of two carbonaceous materials, selected as diesel soot surrogates. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger methods) for evaluating the activation energy of the combustion process. On the other hand, by means of the compensation relation between E and lnA, which was established by the model-dependent Coats-Redfern method, the value of the pre-exponential factor was estimated from the known value of the model-independent activation energy.
Non-isothermal oxidation kinetics of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied using thermogravimetry up to 1273 K in ambient using multiple heating rates. One single heating rate based model-fitting technique and four multiple heating rates based model-free isoconversional methods were used for this purpose. Depending on nanotube structure and impurity content, average activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A), reaction order (n), and degradation mechanism changed considerably. For multi-walled CNTs, Ea and A evaluated using model-fitting technique were ranged from 142.31 to 178.19 kJ mol−1, respectively, and from 1.71 × 105 to 5.81 × 107 s−1, respectively, whereas, Ea for single-walled CNTs ranged from 83.84 to 148.68 kJ mol−1 and A from 2.55 × 102 to 1.18 × 107 s−1. Although, irrespective of CNT type, the model-fitting method resulted in a single kinetic triplet i.e., Ea, A, and reaction mechanism, model-free isoconversional methods suggested that thermal oxidation of these nanotubes could be either a simple single-step mechanism with almost constant activation energy throughout the reaction span or a complex process involving multiple mechanisms that offered varying Ea with extent of conversion. Criado method was employed to predict degradation mechanism(s) of these CNTs.
Thermogravimetric techniques have been used to study the kinetics of thermal deamination of tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II)
sulphate. The complex was synthesized and characterized by various chemical and spectral techniques. Thermal decomposition
studies were carried at different heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20°C min−1) in dynamic air. The complex undergoes a four-stage decomposition pattern. The stages are not well resolved. Decomposition
path can be interpreted as a two-stage deamination, and a two-stage decomposition. Reaction products at each stage were separated
and identified by means of IR and XRD. The morphology of the complex and the residue were studied by means of SEM. Final residue
of the decomposition was found to be crystalline NiO.
The deamination kinetics was studied using model-free isoconversional methods viz., Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose
(KAS) methods. It is observed that the activation energy varies with the extent of conversion; indicating the complex nature
of the deamination reaction.
Authors:K. Muraleedharan, M. P. Kannan, and Devi T. Ganga
The thermal decomposition of potassium iodate (KIO3) has been studied by both non-isothermal and isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The non-isothermal simultaneous TG–differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the thermal decomposition of KIO3 was carried out in nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates. The isothermal decomposition of KIO3 was studied using TG at different temperatures in the range 790–805 K in nitrogen atmosphere. The theoretical and experimental mass loss data are in good agreement for the thermal decomposition of KIO3. The non-isothermal decomposition of KIO3 was subjected to kinetic analyses by model-free approach, which is based on the isoconversional principle. The isothermal decomposition of KIO3 was subjected to both conventional (model fitting) and model-free (isoconversional) methods. It has been observed that the activation energy values obtained from all these methods agree well. Isothermal model fitting analysis shows that the thermal decomposition kinetics of KIO3 can be best described by the contracting cube equation.
The non-isothermal decomposition process of the powder sample of palladium acetylacetonate [Pd(acac)2] was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Model-free isoconversional method
of Tang, applied to the investigated decomposition process, yield practically constant apparent activation energy in the range
of 0.05≤α≤0.95. It was established, that the Coats-Redfern (CR) method gives several statistically equivalent reaction models,
but only for the phase-boundary reaction models (R2 and R3), the calculated value of the apparent activation energy (E) is nearest to the values of E obtained by the Tang’s and Kissinger’s methods.
The apparent activation energy value obtained by the IKP method (132.4 kJ mol−1) displays a good agreement with the value of E obtained using the model-free analysis (130.3 kJ mol−1). The artificial isokinetic relationship (aIKR) was used for the numerical reconstruction of the experimental integral model
function, g(α). It was established that the numerically reconstructed experimental function follows R3 reaction model in the range of
α, taken from model-free analysis. Generally, decomposition process of Pd(acac)2 starts with initial nucleation which was characterized by rapid onset of an acceleratory reaction without presence of induction
The nitrate complexes of copper, nickel and zinc with diethylenetriamine (dien) i.e. [Cu(dien)2](NO3)2, [Ni(dien)2](NO3)22H2O and [Zn(dien)2](NO3)2 have been prepared and characterised. Thermal studies were undertaken using TG-DTG, DSC, ignition delay (tid) and ignition temperature (IT) measurements. Impact sensitivity was measured using drop mass technique. The kinetic parameters for both non-isothermal
and isothermal decomposition of the complexes were evaluated by employing Coats-Redfern (C-R) method and Avrami-Erofeev (A-E)
equations (n=2 and 3), respectively. The kinetic analysis, using isothermal TG data, was also made on the basis of model free isoconversional
method and plausible mechanistic pathways for their decomposition are proposed. Rapid process was assessed by ignition delay
measurements. All these complexes were found to be insensitive towards impact of 2 kg mass hammer up to the height limit (110
cm) of the instrument used. The heat of reaction (?H) for each stage of decomposition was determined using DSC.
Authors:Gurdip Singh, A. K. Shrimal, Inder Pal Singh Kapoor, Chandra Prakash Singh, Dinesh Kumar, and Manan S. Mudi
Kinetics of thermolysis is evaluated from isothermal TG data using model-fitting as well as model-freeisoconversionalmethod [ 25 ]. The following equation was found to be hold under isothermal condition:
where, α is the extent of conversion, E is
studies of amine complexes quite significant. The kinetics of deamination and dehalogenation of hexaamminenickel(II) halides have been studied using model-freeisoconversionalmethods viz., Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) [ 12 , 13 ], Friedman [ 14 ] and Kissinger