An intermediate neutron moderation method for measurement of moisture and/or hydrogen contents of small samples is presented.
The sample is placed on the top face of a neutron howitzer, with a cadmium sheet between. Thermal neutrons resulting from
intermediate neutron moderation in the sample are detected with a3He proportional counter placed on the sample, by a cadmium difference method. With a 500 mCi Am-Be neutron source, the limit
of moisture detection for a 10×20×1.8 cm3 asbestos plate in 1 min count time is 0.5 wt.%. The precision of measuring the hydrogen contents of 250 ml hydrocarbons containing
112 mg H/ml is 0.9% under the same conditions.
An improved method based on the moderation of intermediate neutrons for the measurement of hydrogen in small samples is described.
With the aid of boron and cadmium filters, a space shielded from slow neutrons is set up close to an isotopic neutron source
shrouded by water moderator. A BF3 proportional counter enclosed with a sample cell is placed in this space. The neutron count rate of the counter increases
when a hydrogen-containing material is introduced into the cell, due to the moderation of intermediate neutrons passing through
the filters. With a 1.3 μg252Cf neutron source, the lower limit of hydrogen detection for 200 ml samples in 10 min count time is 0.01 wt.%. This method
is suitable for measuring the H2O content of heavy water.
The thermal neutron moderation analysis facility at the Institute of Experimental Physics, Debrecen, Hungary has been used
to determine the weight percent of total hydrogen content in Nigerian palm oil. The facility utilizes the fast neutron moderation
technique in which the intensity of reflected thermalized neutrons is proportional to the hydrogen content of the sample exposed
to fast neutrons. Using a 100 cm3 sample the total hydrogen content in the oven-dry palm oil sample was found to be 12.0±0.1% within a measuring time of 5
minutes. The method is fast and can be used in plant quality control where the hydrogen content must be determined within
A method of measuring heavy water concentration is described based on intermediate neutron moderation. With a 1.6 g252Cf neutron source and a BF3 proportional counter, for 500 ml samples, accuracies of the measurements are within ±0.02 mol% in the concentration range of 0100 mol% with 210 minute counting. To evaluate the practical effectiveness of the method, a model apparatus was built for routine use in laboratory and on-stream measurements. It was successfully applied to observe the substitution process between light water and heavy water in an ion exchange resin tower at a nuclear power station.
Ageing is a complex phenomenon that should be studied in a multidisciplinary approach examining the biological, psychological, and social determinants in it. There is a lack of understanding of how social factors contribute to a better and healthier way of ageing. Based on previous studies social factors have a more essential role in ageing successfully. These factors have a significant influence on mental and physical health as well. The present review aims to collect the most researched social factors related to successful ageing and to examine the associations revealed between social factors and successful ageing.
We conducted a systematic review by the guidelines of the PRISMA statements. We examined the studies included by using a qualitative synthesis to identify the most important social factors and their role in successful ageing.
In total, 18 original articles published in English between 2015 and 2020 were included in the review. The examined social factors related to successful ageing can be classified into four categories: Social engagement/participation, Social support, Social integration/network, and Socio-demographic/Socioeconomic factors. Social factors are modifiable and protective determinants, they could eliminate the negative effects of psychological factors while modifying the effects of physical determinants of ageing at the same time.
Our results have implications for future studies, as successful ageing should be examined in a multidimensional way. They should provide further evidence for the mediating/moderating importance of social factors which also have relevance in practice. Social factors could provide a quality life for years to come.
Based on the evidence of the pagan philosophical and rhetorical tradition, this study investigates the changes of the spiritual background of the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. The central concern of the present paper is to examine how Neoplatonic religious thoughts are formulated in the mirrors for princes as a principal idea to the image of a Christian ruler, and which elements of the ruler’s canon are emphasized in some sources of Antiquity.
—RTA MIT , RPP MIT , and PS MIT . Second, no previous study discusses the moderation effect of the technological attractiveness measured by RGR MIT on the relationship between patent trait and corporate growth. Third, no previous study applies the
). Following the OMT commitment, periphery bond spreads returned to moderate levels, with occasional spikes only (such as in 2015 amid the third phase of the Greek turmoil). The moderation, however, did not come without a price tag in a political sense. Related