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The common wheat line, YW243, developed in our research group, was tested for the resistances of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), powdery mildew (Pm) and stripe rust in field, and was analyzed by molecular markers for convenient trace of the resistant genes in breeding. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) assay further demonstrated that YW243 was a homozygous multiple translocation line of Triticum aestivum, Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (T7DS·7DL-7XL & 1BL·1RS). The disease resistance test and marker analysis showed that YW243 carried seven resistance genes to the three diseases, including Bdv2 to BYDV on 7DL-7XL, Pm4 to powdery mildew on 2AL, Yr2, Yr9, Sr 31 and Lr26 and a new Yr to stripe rust on 7B, 1BL, 1RS and 2BL. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers Xpsr687 and Xwg380 , sequence tagged site (STS) marker STS 1700 , simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers Xgwmc364 and Xgwm582 , SSR markers Xgwm388 and Xgwm501 can be used as diagnostic tools to track Bdv2, Pm4, Yr2, Yr9 and Yr in YW243 , respectively; and two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers M54E63 - 700 and M54E64 - 699 can also be used to select Yr in YW243 .

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Bányai, P. Szűcs, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, Cs. Kuti, L. Láng and Z. Bedő

Gupta, P. K, R. K. Varshney, P. C. Sharma, B. Ramesh (1999). Molecular markers and their applications in wheat breeding. Plant Breeding 118: 369–390. Ramesh B. Molecular markers and

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., Boeuf, C., Bernard, S., Leroy, P., Bernard, M. 1998. Molecular markers linked to genes affecting plant height in wheat using a double-haploid population. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96 :933–940. Bernard M

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., Messmer, M., Feuillet, C., Winzeler, H., Winzeler, M., Keller, B. 1995. Identification of molecular markers linked to the Agropyron elongatum -derived leaf rust resistance gene Lr24 in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90 :982

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., Ellis, J., Pryor, A. 2002. Identification and mapping of molecular markers linked to rust resistance genes located on chromosome 1RS of rye using wheat-rye translocation lines. Theor. Appl. Genet. 104 :1317

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) Cereal Chem. 2002 79 553 558 Ahmad, M. 2000. Molecular marker-assisted selection of HMW

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Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was carried out in a set of 114 RILs of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) mapping population under salt stress. Seedling population was grown during 8 days, under salt treatment (Hoagland’s ½ strength + 110 mM NaCl, EC 12.4 mS/cm) and normal treatment (Hoagland’s ½ strength, EC 0.9 mS/cm). We calculated starch degradation, measuring the dry weight of the grains on the 4th, 6th and 8th days of culturing. Formation of biomass was calculated measuring leaf and root length on the 4th, 6th and 8th days of culture. Interval mapping resulted in 13 QTLs, 2 major QTLs (LOD> 3) and 11 minors QTLs (LOD> 2). A total of 10 QTLs were associated with saline treatment and 3 QTLs at normal treatment. The data show that a high percentage of QTLs were in chromosomes 2B (3, 23.0%), and 1A (3, 23.0%), followed by 4D (2, 13.6%).

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Sharka ( Plum pox virus , PPV), is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting apricot production in those areas that are affected. The development and cultivation of new resistant cultivars could be the definitive solution to the disease. In this process of development and introduction of new resistant cultivars, the availability of a reliable method is of great interest for the evaluation of resistance. The development of molecular (genomic or proteomic) markers linkage to this trait could greatly accelerate this evaluation process in apricot. In this work, a double strategy for the development of molecular markers linkage to PPV resistance in apricot is presented: search for genomic (DNA) markers and study the protein expression through 2D electrophoresis (proteomic markers). The search of DNA markers linkage to the resistance is focused on the application of SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers located in the linkage group I, in which PPV resistance has been located by different authors. On the other hand, studies of activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein expression by 2D electrophoresis have been performed in resistant and susceptible apricot cultivars.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: V. Oslovičová, J.R. Simmonds, J.W. Snape, Z. Gálová, Z. Balážová and I. Matušíková

In this study we evaluate the genetic diversity of a selection of wheat accessions characteristically grown and adapted to mid-European environments, using various molecular marker systems. Thirty-three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used alongside genic markers for known dwarfing genes, flowering time genes, and grain hardness genes, namely Rht-B1, Rht-D1, Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Pinb-D1. In addition, variation was scored for the high-molecular-weight glutenin storage proteins, responsible for dough technological quality. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA algorithm, based on the molecular data and the country of origin, giving an overview of their genetic similarity and relationships. The potential for the use of some agronomic traits in breeding, by providing a basis for multi-trait genetic selection in wheat breeding programs is discussed. Estimating the breeding values of crops using multiple genetic markers might help in breeding for varieties with good technological quality for growing under desired climatic conditions.

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their identification with molecular markers. J. Appl. Genet. 44 :291–309. Sobkiewicz M. Resistance genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their identification with molecular

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