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Authors:R. Singh, P. Hucl, M. Båga, and R. Chibbar
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major abiotic constraints influencing production of high quality grain. Selection for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in early generations is difficult because it is expressed as a quantitatively inherited trait and subject to environmental effects. The objectives of this study were to validate a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for PHS resistance on chromosome 4A in bread wheat and to isolate near-isogenic lines for this QTL using marker-assisted selection. A total of 60 Canadian wheat cultivars and experimental lines were screened with three SSR markers in a QTL region for PHS resistance. The SSR markers DuPw004, barc170 and wmc650 explained 67%, 75% and 60% of total variation in germination (%), respectively, among different wheat genotypes. Marker assisted back crossing with DuPw004 reduced the population size in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generation by 41% and 59%, respectively. A survey of pedigrees of different genotypes revealed that the parental line RL4137 is a major source of increased PHS resistance in a number of western Canadian wheat cultivars. Microsatellite markers (DuPw004, barc170 and wmc650) will be useful for plant breeders to pyramid QTL from different PHS resistance sources.
Authors:P. Martínez-Gómez, P. Díaz-Vivancos, M. Rubio, M. Clemente, F. Dicenta, and J. Hernández
Plum pox virus
, PPV), is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting apricot production in those areas that are affected. The development and cultivation of new resistant cultivars could be the definitive solution to the disease. In this process of development and introduction of new resistant cultivars, the availability of a reliable method is of great interest for the evaluation of resistance. The development of molecular (genomic or proteomic) markers linkage to this trait could greatly accelerate this evaluation process in apricot. In this work, a double strategy for the development of molecular markers linkage to PPV resistance in apricot is presented: search for genomic (DNA) markers and study the protein expression through 2D electrophoresis (proteomic markers). The search of DNA markers linkage to the resistance is focused on the application of SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers located in the linkage group I, in which PPV resistance has been located by different authors. On the other hand, studies of activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein expression by 2D electrophoresis have been performed in resistant and susceptible apricot cultivars.
Authors:V. Oslovičová, J.R. Simmonds, J.W. Snape, Z. Gálová, Z. Balážová, and I. Matušíková
In this study we evaluate the genetic diversity of a selection of wheat accessions characteristically grown and adapted to mid-European environments, using various molecular marker systems. Thirty-three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used alongside genic markers for known dwarfing genes, flowering time genes, and grain hardness genes, namely Rht-B1, Rht-D1, Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Pinb-D1. In addition, variation was scored for the high-molecular-weight glutenin storage proteins, responsible for dough technological quality. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA algorithm, based on the molecular data and the country of origin, giving an overview of their genetic similarity and relationships. The potential for the use of some agronomic traits in breeding, by providing a basis for multi-trait genetic selection in wheat breeding programs is discussed. Estimating the breeding values of crops using multiple genetic markers might help in breeding for varieties with good technological quality for growing under desired climatic conditions.
Authors:H. Xie, Z. Lin, Z. Zhang, L. Du, Z. Xin, Y. Ma, X. Ye, and X. Chen
The common wheat line, YW243, developed in our research group, was tested for the resistances of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), powdery mildew (Pm) and stripe rust in field, and was analyzed by molecular markers for convenient trace of the resistant genes in breeding. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) assay further demonstrated that YW243 was a homozygous multiple translocation line of
Triticum aestivum, Thinopyrum intermedium
(T7DS·7DL-7XL & 1BL·1RS). The disease resistance test and marker analysis showed that YW243 carried seven resistance genes to the three diseases, including
to BYDV on 7DL-7XL,
to powdery mildew on 2AL,
Yr2, Yr9, Sr 31
and a new
to stripe rust on 7B, 1BL, 1RS and 2BL. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers
, sequence tagged site (STS) marker STS
, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
, SSR markers
can be used as diagnostic tools to track
Bdv2, Pm4, Yr2, Yr9
, respectively; and two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers
can also be used to select