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the Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség) – was also significant in the late medieval history of the region, as the establishment and the economic activities of a Pauline monastery, too, contributed to the changes in the environment. The

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The ancient mortars of the monastery of San Filippo di Fragalà in Frazzanò, the first Basilian-Norman center in Sicily, have been studied and classified by means of ICP, HPLC, TG-DTA, XRD and thin sections analysis. A new very simple method to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the mortars, based on the combination of analytical and thermogravimetric data, is also reported. The HPLC investigations indicate that the monastery is only partially involved in decay phenomena due to the action of soluble salts.

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In the 16th–17th centuries the Ottoman conquerors of the occupied territories of Hungary gradually established their own intitutions. Together with the military, dervishes also appeared and generally settled outside the defended city walls. Owing to the sparsity of source material, the lives and activities of these dervishes and their monasteries are less known. The present study attempts to collect and present all the data concerning the Bektaşi convents in Ottoman Hungary. Five monasteries are known to have existed that undoubtedly belonged to the Bektaşi order: two in Buda, one in Eger, another one in Székesfehérvár and one in Lippa. It is most likely that the convent of Yağmur Baba in Hatvan, that of Muhtar Baba in Buda, and perhaps that in Szolnok also had Bektaşi affiliations. This relatively small number may probably be augmented in the future, since many more Babas had monasteries and shrines in Ottoman Hungary, whose biographies and affiliations still await further research. Obviously, the political elite in Ottoman Hungary considered it important to support the Bektaşi dervishes; they fostered the building of convents and provided them with endowments. Thus, in addition to the pronounced presence of the Bektaşis in literary monuments, and the reputation of Gül Baba preserved throughout the centuries, the presence of Bektaşi convents in Hungary also testifies to the significant role played by this dervish order in the cultural life of Ottoman Hungary.

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This paper argues that until 1680s, the Oirat political culture in the upper Irtysh area was based on the leadership of Khoshut clan rather than Jungars, as it is believed nowadays. Ablai Taiji of the Khoshut nobility, the founder of the Buddhist monastery Ablai-kit, inherited and pursued a policy of cooperation with Muscovy in an attempt to profit from its trade with China. Over the course of 1670s, under pressure from his brother, Ablai lost his domains and was defeated by his enemies. To construct this narrative, this paper engages in critical analysis of diverse archival sources and existing historiography.

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Mather, Richard B. (1981): The Bonze's Begging Bowl: Eating Practices in Buddhist Monasteries of Medieval India and China. Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 , pp. 417--23. The Bonze's Begging Bowl: Eating Practices in

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Research of the manuscript hitherto known and labeled as the "Liber sequentiarum and sacramentarium" (“LS”), stored today in Šibenik, has shown that this chant book is the earliest missal copied in the monastery of Tegernsee for the St Thomas Basilica in medieval Pula, Istria.Indications for its provenance are drawn from its codicological, palaeographical and repertorial features. Beside the detailed comparison of its script, notation, sequence and trope repertory, this article shows up to date not analyzed repertory of the saints venerated in its sacramentary and in the list of relicts to be mentioned at the end of missal (Haec sunt reliquiae). Particularly, this portions of the “LS” repertory were a clue toward detection that the “Leitheiliger” of this chant book is St Thomas Apostle, a patron of the bishopric of Parenzo/Pula, to whom also the “unicum” sequence Armonia concinnans was dedicated. St Thomas Basilica in medieval Pula is place of usage where this “commissioned book” has been meant for liturgical usage. In the broader Aquileian context this manuscript is important as a “new source” from Aquileia and its eastern province of Istria.

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( 2012 ): A Pure Mind in a Clean Body: Bodily Care in the Buddhist Monasteries of Ancient India and China . Ghent , Academia Press . Hirakawa , Akira 平川彰 ( 1970

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The author of this paper examines what position the most prominent 12th-century Russian ecclesiastic writer and orator, the author of numerous festal speeches and parables, Cyril of Turov takes up on and what aesthetic value he attributes to ecclesiastic feasts. In the paper, it is also studied why he considers it important and “soul-saving” to read and to know sacred books while he also speaks of the psychology of reading.

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Cedendamba, S. - Lxagwa, L. - Soninbayar, Š. - Luwsanbaldan, E. - Otgonbaatar, R. - Amgalan, N. (eds) (2009): Mongoliin süm xiidiin tüüxen towcoon [Brief history of Mongolian monasteries]. Ulaanbaatar

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