The market pulsates in the teleological dynamism of the economy. The price formations of the market focus on the problem of value. The various goods obtain a common denominator in value judgements through the three stages of evaluation. At the first stage in the ontological base constituted by the analogia proportionis of utility, reason, the mind, can recognise the teleological relationship. At the second stage in this light of aims, reason can appreciate the value relationships in the items' rarity compared with the goals proposed. At the third stage, reason compares the possibilities of means with the aims which count to the person's will, and the various disparate items become of equal value by the decision of the will, in which the standard is the virtue of prudence. Economic value is measured by money, which is the product of the human society's will following our reason, as the society of monkeys lacks money. Money is such a tool of measuring economic value by which we might acquire anything according to its measure, as it is a draft on the national product constituting its real matter in the Aristotelian sense.
This paper aims to outline three topics in connection with money in Roman law. Firstly, the traditional concept of money is examined through ancient legal sources, leading to a deeper scrutiny of certain decision-making principles of Roman lawyers, namely that of
. After the evaluation of the related sources, it becomes clear that these principles were used as a kind of canon to separate
, and that is why
became the foundation stone of several cases. Finally, the issue of
is analysed, focusing mainly on the question whether it is really
traditio in incertam personam
, or something else. The texts dealing with
are on the one hand highly unanimous concerning the terminology, while on the other hand they contain merely
arguments. After a closer examination of these texts as well as their true nature, the
seems rather the unity of
traditio in incertam personam
Authors:Pawel Sleczka, Barbara Braun-Michl, and Ludwig Kraus
Background The role of money goes beyond the sole means of payment. It also fulfils our psychological needs of power, security, love or freedom and often plays a central role in our lives ( Goldberg & Lewis, 1978 ). In gambling, money has a
There is an observable discrepancy between the real and virtual economy, as money stopped being the tool and essence of capitalism and the economy in the postmodern era. Money has become a purpose, a simulation, a viral virtual image. For this reason, we should rather say that it is no longer money, but the image of money that talks. The transparent digital convergence culture creates a borderless second world for the economy. This economy and our attitude towards it have never been so far removed from reality. Communication, information and economy have lost their referential nature. As soon as we get in contact with the virtual/digital world, we open our eyes onto the image and the transparency of images. A visual metaphor is a visual rhetorical tool that strives to express messages, to place emphasis on certain aspects of messages, and to convey a persuasive message. This paper aims to demonstrate visual metaphor chains that set a mirror between the real and virtual economy and that serve to show the changed attitude towards money. We illustrate our theoretical approach by analysing the multimodal metaphors that appear in a video clip from popular culture.
, Williams, & Arthur, 2017 ). The central involvement of money means winning and losing can prompt feelings of elation and joy as well as desperation, sadness and despair heightened by a sense of financial gain or loss. To date, regulation that is specific to