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# On the Lipschitz perturbation of monotonic functions

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Zita Makó and Zsolt Páles

## Summary

A real valued function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $f$ \end{document} defined on a real interval \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document} is called \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d$ \end{document} -Lipschitz if it satisfies \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $|\ell(x)- \ell(y)| \le d(x,y)$ \end{document} for \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\ x,y\in I$ \end{document}. In this paper, we investigate when a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} can be decomposed in the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document}, where \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $q$ \end{document} is increasing and \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\ell$ \end{document} is \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d$ \end{document}-Lipschitz. In the general case when \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d: I^{2} \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} is an arbitrary semimetric, a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} can be written in the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document} if and only if
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\sum_{i=1}^{n}{\big(p(s_{i})-p(t_{i})-d(t_{i},s_{i}) \big)^{+}} \le \sum_{j=1}^{m}{\big(p(v_{j})-p(u_{j})+d(u_{j},v_{j}) \big)}$$ \end{document}
is fulfilled for all real numbers \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t_{1}<s_{1}, \dots, t_{n}<s_{n}$ \end{document} and \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $u_{1}<v_{1}, \dots, u_{m}<v_{m}$ \end{document} in \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document} satisfying the condition
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\sum_{i=1}^{n} 1_{\left]t_i,s_i\right]}= \sum_{j=1}^{m} 1_{\left]u_j,v_j\right]},$$ \end{document}
where \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $1_{\left]a,b\right]}$ \end{document} denotes the characteristic function of the interval \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\left]a,b\right]$ \end{document}. In the particular case when \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d: I^{2} \to R$ \end{document} is a so-called concave semimetric, a function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p: I \to \mathbb{R}$ \end{document} is of the form \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $p=q+ \ell$ \end{document} if and only if
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$0 \le \sum_{k=1}^{n}{d(x_{2k-1},x_{2k})} + d(x_0,x_{2n+1}) + \sum_{k=0}^{n}{\big(p(x_{2k+1})-p(x_{2k})\big)}$$ \end{document}
holds for all \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $x_0\le x_1< \cdots< x_{2n}\le x_{2n+1}$ \end{document} in \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $I$ \end{document}.
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# Monotonic solutions of some singular integral equations of Volterra type

Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
Authors: Mahmoud Borai, Wagdy El-Sayed, and Mohammed Abbas

Banás, J. and Martinón, A. , On monotonic solutions of a quadratic integral equation of Volterra type, Comput. Math. App. , 47 (2004), no. 2–3, 271–279. MR 2005b :45002 Martinón A

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# Weakly linearly lindelöf monotonically normal spaces are lindelöf

Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
Authors: István Juhász, Vladimir V. Tkachuk, and Richard G. Wilson

. , General Topology , Heldermann Verlag , Berlin , 1989 .  Gartside , P. M. , Cardinal invariants of monotonically normal

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# L 1-approximation rate of certain trigonometric series

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: R. J. Le and S. P. Zhou

. 25 19 – 25 (in Chinese).  Zhou , S. P. 2010 What condition can correctly generalize monotonicity in L 1 -convergence of sine series

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# A broader context for monotonically monolithic spaces

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: O. Alas, V. Tkachuk, and R. Wilson

## Abstract

This is a sequel of the work done on (strongly) monotonically monolithic spaces and their generalizations. We introduce the notion of monotonically κ-monolithic space for any infinite cardinal κ and present the relevant results. We show, among other things, that any σ-product of monotonically κ-monolithic spaces is monotonically κ-monolithic for any infinite cardinal κ; besides, it is consistent that any strongly monotonically ω-monolithic space with caliber ω 1 is second countable. We also study (strong) monotone κ-monolithicity in linearly ordered spaces and subspaces of ordinals.

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# Monotonicity properties of operations on generalized topologies

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Author: Ákos Császár

Summary In the paper , several operations on generalized topologies are considered. They are not monotone in general, but an old result on monotonicity may be sharpened.

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# A note on monotonically normal spaces

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Y. Gao, H. Qu, and S. Wang

## Abstract

We show that a monotonically normal space X is paracompact if and only if for every increasing open cover {U α: α < κ} of X, there is a closed cover {F : n < ω, α < κ} of X such that F U α for n < ω, α < κ and F F if αβ.

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# A monotonicity property of Riemann’s xi function and a reformulation of the Riemann hypothesis

Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: Jonathan Sondow and Cristian Dumitrescu

## Abstract

We prove that Riemann’s xi function is strictly increasing (respectively, strictly decreasing) in modulus along every horizontal half-line in any zero-free, open right (respectively, left) half-plane. A corollary is a reformulation of the Riemann Hypothesis.

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# A generalization of the monotonicity condition and applications

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: D. Yu and S. Zhou

## Abstract

We introduce a new class of sequences called NBVS to generalize GBVS, essentially extending monotonicity from “one sided” to “two sided”, while some important classical results keep true.

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# A remark on the Abel’s and Dirichlet’s criterions concerning generalizations to monotonicity

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: R. Le and H. Zhang

## Abstract

The Abel’s and Dirichlet’s criterions for convergence of series in analysis are very basic classical results and both require the monotonicity condition. In this note we show that the monotonicity condition in these criterions can be generalized to RBV condition, while cannot be generalized to quasimonotonicity.

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