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Abstract  

The adsorption of the tertiary aromatic amide alachlor by Na-montmorillonite and Al-polyhydroxy-montmorillonite was investigated by DTA, XRD, SEM and Thermo-FTIR Spectroscopy. This molecule is adsorbed into the interlayer space of the montmorillonite, replacing interlayer water. In this organo-clay complex the interlayer water forms hydrogen bonds with N or O atoms of the tertiary amide group. Samples which were aged during six months degraded by hydrolysis to give mainly secondary amide. This reaction was catalysed by Al-polyhydroxy-montmorillonite more than by Na-montmorillonite.

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Abstract  

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/organic-montmorillonite composites were prepared by melt intercalation. Their structures and properties were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical testing. The results showed that PVC chains could be intercalated into the gallery of organically modified montmorillonite to form exfoliated PVC/organic-montmorillonite nanocomposites, and the glass transition temperatures of PVC/organic-montmorillonite composites were lower than that of neat PVC. However, the tensile strength, and both the Izod type and Charpy notched impact strengths of PVC/organic-montmorillonite nanocomposites were fitted with the linear expressions: t=535.07-6.39T g, s I=378.76-4.59T g and sC=276.29-3.59T g, respectively.

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Abstract  

Reduced charge montmorillonites (RCM) were prepared by the thermal treatment of lithiumsaturated montmorillonite. Samples prepared by mild thermal treatment with lithium contained more water sorbed than the original montmorrilonite. When RCMs were prepared, part of the lithium cations reacted with hydroxyl groups in the octahedral sheet and released protons, which reacted with the structure. Acid treatment probably enhanced the surface area. which was reflected in the amount of water sorbed. Deprotonation of hydroxyl groups was proved by the measurements of the ignition loss. The heating of lithium saturated montmorillonite at higher temperatures brough about the collapse of the interlayers and a decrease in the amount of water sorbed.

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Nanocomposites based on gelatin and montmorillonite

Morphological and thermal studies

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Martucci, A. Vázquez, and R. Ruseckaite

Abstract  

Model gelatin/montmorillonite (Ge/MMt) composites were obtained for a variety of unmodified clay concentrations and in the absence of additives, with the main goal of evaluating the effect of the morphologies developed on the composites thermal stability. Morphologies turned form partially exfoliated to exfoliate/intercalated and eventually agglomerated with increasing clay loading, as was observed by atomic force microscopy. Formulations containing 3–10 mass% montmorillonite resulted in an enhancement of composites thermal stability due to stabilizing interactions between co-components, such as strong hydrogen-type bonds, in agreement with the partially exfoliated/intercalated morphologies. Higher clay concentrations showed lower stabilizing effect in agreement with the agglomerated structures developed and the less effective interactions between co-components.

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Abstract  

Montmorillonite was modified with octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, under different reaction conditions, as evidenced by TG and XRD. TG curves presented two degradation peaks (295 and 395C). At low salt concentrations, only the 395C-degradation appeared, which increased with reaction time to the limit of 9 g of salt/100 g of clay. The second peak presented a limit at 17/100 m/m of salt/clay ratio. XRD analysis confirmed clay organic modification as the basal distance increased, showing greater reaction time effect than the salt mass effect, and with only one d-spacing. This suggested that an intercalation complex was formed but also that octadecyltrimethylammonium was adsorbed on the external surfaces of clay particles.

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Abstract  

MgO was incorporated into montmorillonite (MMT) though the controlled formation of Mg(OH)2 followed by calcination. The evidence for Mg2+ in MMT before calcination was concluded from TG curves where two different temperature ranges for Mg(OH)2 dehydroxylation suggested that the location of Mg2+ at its internal and external surfaces. FTIR by diffuse reflectance technique of calcined sample showed a typical MgO band. XRD indicated a decrease in structural order and no collapse of clay structure. The organic compounds adsorption to MMT modified with MgO as suggested by increased degradation temperatures occurred at internal and external clay surfaces besides in an area formed probably by MgO and MMT layers.

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Abstract  

A series of anion-cation surfactants modified organoclays are prepared by incorporating both cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB), and anionic surfactant, sodiumdodecyl sulfonate (SDS), to montmorillonite. The added amounts of surfactant varied from 0.2 to 4.0 CEC of the used montmorillonite, similar to those reported in literature. A combination of elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis is used in the characterization of the resulting organoclays. The experimental results show that anionic surfactants can not be intercalated into the montmorillonite whereas they can be loaded onto cationic modified montmorillonite, resulting in a further increase of organic carbon content of the resulting organoclays. This study demonstrates that SDS can be intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space through the interaction with HDTMAB rather than by ion exchange. The intercalation of SDS results in an increase of the basal spacing of the resulting organoclays when comparing with HDTMAB modified montmorillonite and higher decomposition temperature of the intercalated surfactants when comparing with them in bulk state. These new insights are of high importance in the application of organoclays in the fields of remediation of polluted water and synthesis of clay based nanocomposites.

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Abstract  

In the present investigation, DTA and TG techniques were used to study the thermal behaviour of montmorillonite treated with solutions of the pesticide aminotriazole (AMT), in nitrogen flow. These techniques have been complemented by mass spectrometry of the evolved gases (EGA-MS). AMT is adsorbed in the interlamellar space of montmorillonite as a cation. Results obtained in this study show that this provokes a shift of the dehydroxylation peak of montmorillonite to lower temperatures than those of the untreated clay. Montmorillonite protects the adsorbedAMT, delaying its first decomposition step, and catalysesAMT final decomposition at lower temperatures. The DTA curve of montmorillonite-AMT mechanical mixture differs from the sum of those of the clay mineral and the pesticide heated individually. Montmorillonite dehydroxylation occurs at lower temperature, indicating a complex formation betweenAMT and the mineral during the heating process. However the DTA of the mixture is different from that of the complex previously studied, indicating that in the complex obtained by heating the physical mixtureAMT is adsorbed as neutral molecule or as a product of its decomposition.

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Abstract  

The blue organo-clay color pigment (OCCP) naphthylazonaphthylammonium-montmorillonite was synthesized from the white naphthylammonium-montmorillonite by treating with NaNO2, the azo colorant being located in the interlayer space. The following effects on the basal spacing of naphthylazonaphthylammonium-and naphthylammonium-clay were investigated: (1) the amount of naphthylammonium loading the clay, (2) the amount of NaNO2 used for the staining, (3) aging of the preparation suspension and (4) thermal treatment. Samples were heated at 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360°C and diffracted by X-ray. During aging, some of the dye decomposed. Samples, after one day aging, were investigated by DTA. During the dehydration stage both organo-clays gradually decomposed, the naphthylammonium-clay at 120°C and the OCCP at 180°C. That fraction of organic matter, which did not escape, was air-oxidized at above 200°C and charcoal was obtained. The appearance and size of the DTA exothermic peaks depended on the amount of organic matter, which did not escape and this depended on the total amount of organic matter in the DTA cell. DTA proved that naphthylammonium reacted with NaNO2 to form OCCP.

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Abstract  

The composite montmorillonite-8-hydroxyquinoline (Swy-1-8-HQ) was prepared by two different processes and studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG and DSC), as well as helpful techniques as fluorescence in the UV-visible region and X-ray diffraction. The composites developed fluorescent appearance, however with quantum poor efficiency and they exhibited distinct TG and DSC thermal behavior. The fluorescence data of spectra associated to the TG/DT curves allowed to suggest that the 8-HQ was present in the composites in two different circumstances: 1 - intercalated in the interlayer spaces (Swy-1-8-HQ2), rigidly associated to the substrate feasible as a monolayer with the aromatic rings parallel to the silica layer; and/or, 2 - adsorbed on the surface (Swy-1-8-HQ1), either as a bilayer formation or tilting of the molecules to the silicate layer sheet. All results confirmed above are in agreement with X-ray diffraction patterns, once the interlayer space increases when 8-HQ is incorporated. The experimental results confirm the formation of the composites in agreement with the method used in the preparation.

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