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The morphological analysis of Hungarian in the early period of grammatical work was based on three interlaced traditions: Classical Graeco-Roman, Hebrew and German. These were applied to languages that were structurally very much unlike Hungarian. The evolution of morphological analysis was therefore a relatively slow and complicated process, whose milestones discussed in this paper, the four earliest grammars of Hungarian, all represent different stages of development. The grammar by Pál Pereszlényi, which is analysed in some detail here, surpasses the earlier grammars in its acumen on at least three counts: the same set of analytical terms is applied in the description of nominal and verbal morphology; the notions of bound stem and relative stem are clearly recognised; a distinction is made between stems as morphological constituents and word forms serving as starting points of paradigms.

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This report investigates the effect of sampling by the volumetric ring method on pore size number and shape distributions. Soil porosity was analyzed using the micromorphological image analysis technique, which helped to explain soil structure changes near the border of samples collected in cylinders and provided detailed information about pore shape, number, and size distribution variations along the samples. Compaction due to sampling affects mainly large irregular and rounded pores of the soils utilized in this study. When evaluating inaccuracies in density measurements due to the compacted regions caused by the sampling device the average soil bulk density for each soil resulted in the ranges of 1.72 ± 0.05 g.cm −3 for Geric Ferralsol soil, 1.66 ± 0.03 g.cm −3 for Eutric Nitosol soil and 1.33 ± 0.05 g.cm −3 for Rhodic Ferralsol soil, respectively. When calculating the average soil bulk density over smaller regions, e.g. in the center of each sample (area of 17.14 mm 2 ) results reduced to 1.64 ± 0.05 g.cm −3 with Geric Ferralsol soil, 1.56 ± 0.03 g.cm −3 with Eutric Nitosol soil and 1.29 ± 0.10 g.cm −3 with Rhodic Ferralsol soil, respectively. These results clearly indicate the effect of sampling by the volumetric ring method. The use of image analysis was essential to explain compaction differences close to the border of the samples collected using cylinders (volumetric ring method) and provided detailed information about pore shape and size distribution variations within soil samples. The results are useful as indicators of the consequences of sampling on the quality of soil samples.

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Kutatásaink során tételesen megvizsgáltuk három tiszántúli mintaterület (Mikepércs, Hajdúsámson és Nyírbogát) erdős- és kontrollfúrásának felső egy méterén húsz cm-enként vett minták 0,1–0,2 mm-es homokfrakcióinak szemcséit, összesen 22.508 db szemcsét. Megállapítottuk a homokszemcsék ásványi összetételét, alakját és a felületükön látható bélyegeket. A vizsgálat célja az erdő- és kontrollterületi fúrásminták különbségeinek kimutatása, és a talajban végbemenő folyamatokkal történő összefüggésbe hozása.Mivel a területek földtani szempontból homogénnek tekinthetők, statisztikai módszerekkel vizsgáltuk, hogy a minták mennyiben hasonlóak fúrás és mintaterület szinten, és melyek azok a paraméterek, amelyek alapján az erdős és a kontrollminták elkülöníthetők.Az ásványi összetétel esetében összehasonlítottuk a kvarc/földpát részarányt (q/fp), a vas-hidroxidok és a gipsz mennyiségét. A szemcsemorfológia alapján a szögletes (éles, koptatásmentes) szemcsék részaránya, a szemcsefelület morfológiája esetében pedig a kioldás (korrózió), a gipszbevonatok és a szemcséket bevonó barna, limonitos/humuszos hártya gyakorisága hordoz információt a talajosodás során történő változásokról.Az erdővel huzamosan fedett területen az intenzívebb mállás miatt a q/fp arány nagyobb, mint a füves kontrollterületeken. A vas-hidroxid akkumuláció lényegesen nagyobb a folyamatosan tölgyerdővel borított területen, míg az akác- és a fiatal nyárerdő esetében csak a gyepterületek gyenge felszín közeli vasakkumulációja volt észlelhető. A tölgyes és a nyaras fás növényzet gyökérzónája alatt a szulfátok kismértékű feldúsulása észlelhető.A szemcsemorfológiailag éles-hegyes szemcsék az „in situ” felaprózódást jelzik, amelyek végig jelen vannak mind a hat fúrásmintában. A mikepércsi kontroll esetében pásztázó elektronmikroszkópos (SEM) vizsgálattal is valószínűsíthető a fagyhatás. A nyírbogáti 2. fúrás anyagában viszont feltételezhető, hogy a nyárerdővel való fedettség esetében a biológiai felaprózódás került előtérbe. A kontrollterületek fúrásaiban jól láthatók az eredeti (folyóvízi szállításra utaló) felületet felülíró korróziós kimarások, üregek, amelyek a hajdúsámsoni akácos 60 cm alatti mintájában is jelen vannak.Vizsgálatunk eredményeit összegezve megállapíthatjuk, hogy a homokos vázanyag részletekre kiterjedő vizsgálata felhívja a figyelmet a talajban végbemenő változásokra, ezen belül az erdős és a füves területek közötti különbségekre. Így az ilyen jellegű vizsgálatok jól kiegészítik a területekre vonatkozó cönológiai, talajtani és vízföldtani kutatásokat.Jelen munkát az OTKA NN79835 számú pályázata („Sekély talajvizű területen telepített ültetvények által a talajban és altalajban okozott sófelhalmozódás statisztikai és hidrológiai modellezése”) támogatta. Köszönet a NYÍRERDŐ Zrt-nek, hogy hozzájárult az általuk kezelt mikepércsi erdőterületen kitűzött fúrások kivitelezéséhez, valamint a jelen munkában szereplő további mintaterületek tulajdonosainak, akik engedélyezték a vizsgálatok elvégzését.

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The linear hypertrophic scar has become the most common type of pathologic scarring. Silicone-gel sheeting is the first line therapy while intralesional steroid is the second. A light and electron microscopic analysis was carried out to reveal differences in tissue reaction following the two different treatments.Two groups of 12 patients each were treated for 4 months. For the first group, diluted Triamcinolone acetonide was injected until an inactive state was achieved. The other group of patients was treated with silicone-gel sheeting. The scars were examined every two weeks and their appearance documented. After reaching the expected therapeutic response, inactive scars were removed. The excised scars were evaluated through light microscopic histopathology and electron microscopy.The light and electron microscopic observations revealed marked differences following treatments. The activity of fibroblasts and the numbers of collagen fibers forming bundles decreased and the orientation of the collagen fibers was more variable in the treated scars. The amount of elastic fibers increased after both steroid and silicone-gel sheeting treatment. Vascularization was also slightly changed, with more capillaries and fewer pre-capillary arteries detected in the treated scars. Both treatments resulted in the same decrease in score but steroid treatment was more rapid in onset. We suggest that the two different treatments work through different mechanisms, although the final functional outcome is similar.

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In this study, the author provides a survey on a lexical aspect of Old French, namely the liberty of derivation with the prefixes entre-, mal- and mes-. The study presents the semantic components of these prefixes as well as a related morphological analysis. At the end of the paper, the author offers a possible explanation for the frequency of these prefixed forms.

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Abstract  

The sorption of radioactive strontium by poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) obtained by the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) at initial pH 10.8, was investigated. Morphological analysis, performed by transmission electron microscopy, has demonstrated that the solid phase consists of nanometer size ultra-micro particles connected into spherical aggregates. A maximum sorption capacity, determined as the asymptote of the sorption isotherm was =(3.8±0.3)·10–2mol Sr/mol P. Based on this result and the structural conditions, a possible theoretical explanation for the incorporation of a strontium ion into the apatite lattice has been proposed.

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Summary Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and NBR/PVC blends were produced using 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMQ) or not as antioxidant. Controlled ozone degradation was performed in several samples. Thermal, compositional and morphological analysis was performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Thermogravimetry analysis shows four mass loss processes related to plastizicer, complex rubber degradation and metallic oxides and other additives. In NBR (NBR/PVC blends) the onset temperature of the first degradation process varies between 227-231°C (259-262°C) and the apparent activation energy between 26 and 36 kJ mol-1 (36-57 kJ mol-1), the NBR/PVC samples non degraded presents the higher thermal stability.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Vivian J. Szilagyi-Zecchin, Douglas Adamoski, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Mariangela Hungria, Angela C. Ikeda, Vanessa Kava-Cordeiro, Chirlei Glienke, and Lygia V. Galli-Terasawa

The objective of this study was to conduct a survey about fungi associated with leaves from two different maize plant lineages and to analyze their microbiota diversity. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological analysis and molecular taxonomy was performed using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. About 27 fungi morphotypes were obtained, 15 of them were from the first maize lineage. About 86.7% of the individuals belonged to the Dothideomycetes class (Phoma sorghina, Epicocum nigrum, Cladosporium sp., Bipolaris zeicola, and Alternaria alternata complex) and 13.3% to the Sordariomycetes class (Diaporthe/Phomopsis sp. and Nigrospora sp.). This ratio was opposite in the other maize lineage with 25.0% of Dothideomycetes (E. nigrum and Pleosporales) and 75.0% of Sordariomycetes (Gibberella fujikuroi complex, Fusarium graminearum complex, Diaporthe/Phomopsis sp., and Nigrospora sp.). By concerning the analyses of morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny, this study intended to identify the groups of saprophytic, phytopathogenic, and mycotoxin fungi, which differently co-inhabit leaf tissue of maize plants in both tested lineages.

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In industrial production of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) , the green mold epidemics by Trichoderma species cause serious damage. Sampling has preformed in various stages from pili, compost, seed and soil. Trichoderma selective media and PDA were used to isolate Trichoderma species. Out of 423 isolates, three sections of Trichoderma (Trichoderma, Pachybasium and Longibrachiatum) were identified.Among these isolates, more than 350 related to Trichoderma section, 35 to Pachybasium section and 20 related to Longibrachiatum section. T. harzianum, T. virens, T. atroviride, T. citrinoviride, T. ghanens and T. longibrachiatum were identified from Agaricus bisporus . No isolates of T. aggressivum f. aggressivum and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were obtained in this study. Agaricus bisporus is Matrix Nova for T. virens . The high-resolution fingerprinting method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and sequencing of ITS regions were used to study the genetic relationships among Trichoderma isolates. A total of 1127 polymorphic AFLP loci were obtained using 20 primer combinations. No clear trend was detected between clustering in AFLP dendrogram and geographic origin of isolated materials. According to AFLP and morphological analysis, it is concluded that application of these markers resulted the same clustering and also genetic diversity in T. harzianum aggregate group proved byAFLP, suggesting thatAFLP is suitable marker along with sequencing of conserved regions for complementary classification of Trichoderma with other phylogenetic characteristics.

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