When Lamb ( 2017 ) claims that “ motivation is recognised as a vital component in successful second language learning ” (p. 1), he aptly refers to the power of motivation, which, besides other individual
seminars ( Holman, 2011 ; Znamenski, 2007 ). Holman ( 2010 ) sees evidence for a major transformative and spiritual motivation of western ayahuasca drinkers, besides the adventure and sensation-seeking motivation, the rebellious ideology against western
Authors:Álvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, María-Jesús Lirola, Rafael Burgueño, and Anthony Maher
prevention and treatment.
The research has shown that motivation can be a key antecedent of EA ( Edmunds, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006 ; González-Cutre & Sicilia, 2012b ; Parastatidou, Doganis, Theodorakis, & Vlachopoulos, 2014 ; Symons-Downs, Savage
Authors:Wai Yen Tang, Felix Reer, and Thorsten Quandt
the possible causes of gaming disorder, especially in relation to motivation and personality traits. Investigating these factors would significantly contribute to the theoretical understanding of gaming disorder and, in turn, help to identify
Authors:G. Karmos, P. Lakatos, Zsuzsanna Pincze, and et al
Repetitive acoustic stimuli elicit steady-state response (SSR) in the gamma-band both in humans and in mammals. Our aim was to investigate changes of the spontaneous gamma activity and the SSR in the auditory cortex of cats in the background of an instrumental conditioning situation. Epidural electrodes were chronically implanted above the auditory neocortex. The presentation rate of the clicks varied between 20 and 65/s. Spontaneous EEG and SSR were collected in three behavioral states: in an indifferent environment, in the instrumental cage while the cat was waiting for the light CS, and when she stepped on the pedal and was waiting for the meat reward. Using different repetition rate clicks we determined which stimulus rate elicited the largest SSR in these three situations. In quiet animal the highest SSR appeared at 28-30/s. Before and during the CS the optimal stimulus rate shifted to 32-38/s. The frequency of the spontaneous gamma activity changed in parallel way depending on the situation. We conclude that both the SSR and the spontaneous gamma activity reflect resonant activity of the same neuronal circuit of the auditory cortex, and it is modulated by the motivational state of the animal.
Introduction There has been considerable research on the role of different attitudes that may influence language learning acquisition ( Csizér & Kormos, 2006; Gardner, 2004 ) and thus the importance of motivation regarding learning a foreign