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): Reduced aphid infestation in straw mulched organic potatoes. Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Entomol. 15, 123–126. Saucke H. Reduced aphid infestation in straw mulched organic potatoes

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Adisarwanto, T. (1985): The influence of planting method and mulching on soybean seed yield. pp. 215–217. In: Shanmugasundaram, S., Sulzberger, E. W., McLean, B. T. (eds.), Soybean in Tropical and Subtropical

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Fairbourn, M.L. 1973. Effect of gravel mulch on crop yields. Agron. J. 65 :925–928. Fairbourn M.L. Effect of gravel mulch on crop yields Agron. J

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. de Waal , J. Y. , Malan , A. P. and Addison , M. F. ( 2011 ): Evaluating mulches together with Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) for the control of diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera

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56 145 151 Agele, S.O., Iremiren, G.O., Ojeniyi, S.O. 2000. Effects of tillage and mulching on the growth, development and yield of late

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Összefoglalás

Kutatómunkánk elsődleges célja a repce és napraforgó tarlómaradvány N-tartalmának Magyarországra jellemző reprezentatív értékeinek meghatározása volt az országos statisztikai termésadatok és a növényminták N-tartalmának laboratóriumi mérése alapján. Továbbá összefüggést kerestünk a talaj és a növény N-tartalma között.

Vizsgálataink során egész Magyarországot reprezentáló mintavételt végeztünk repce és napraforgó állományokból, 126 növény- és mintegy 70 talajmintát gyűjtöttünk be, melyek N-tartalmát laboratóriumban határoztuk meg.

Kiszámoltuk a két növény országos termésátlagával keletkező tarlómaradvány mennyiségét és a mért N-tartalom értékek alapján megbecsültük a tarlómaradványok N-tartalmát. Összefüggést mutattunk ki a talaj és a növény N-tartalma között. Esettanulmány jeleggel kiszámítottuk egy olyan terület N-mérlegét, amelyre vonatkozóan rendelkezésre áltak a számításhoz szükséges adatok.

Eredményeink legfőbb gyakorlati vonatkozása, hogy a növényi maradványok felszecskázása és talajba dolgozása útján visszapótolt N mennyiségének meghatározása hosszabb távon hozzájárulhat a növénytáplálás költségeinek csökkentéséhez, illetve a természeti erőforrásokkal való takarékosabb gazdálkodáshoz.

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The cultivation technologies for the dominant crops in Hungary need to be improved both in the interests of environmental protection and to reduce cultivation costs. A long-term research project was initiated in order to determine the feasibility of conservation tillage systems. The aim of the experiments was to evaluate conservation farming systems in Hungary in order to achieve more economical and more environment-friendly agricultural land use. Four tillage systems, namely conventional tillage (mouldboard plough), conservation tillage I (primary tillage with a J.D. Disk Ripper), conservation tillage II (primary tillage with a J.D. Mulch Finisher) and no tillage (direct drilling), were compared on a clay loam meadow soil (Vertisol). The physical condition of the experimental soils was evaluated using a hand-operated static cone penetrometer. Parallel with the measurement of penetration resistance, the moisture content of the soil was also determined. The grain yield of maize hybrids (Kincs SC [1999], Occitán SC [2000], Pr 37M34 SC [2001], DeKalb 471 SC [2002]) was measured using a plot combine-harvester. The analysis of soil conditions confirmed that if the cultivation depth and intensity are reduced the compaction of soil layers close to the surface can be expected. The decrease in yields (8-33%) in direct drilling (NT) and shallow, spring cultivated (MF) treatments, despite the higher available water content, can be explained partly by the compacted status of the 15-25 cm soil layer.

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The results obtained showed that there was severe competition between potato and the predominant weed species Coronopus didymus, Chenopodium album, Fumaria parviflora, Melilotus indica and Spergula arvensis. Competition by other weed species was nominal. The maximum reduction in tuber yield due to weed competition was 50.5% in 1997–98 and 63.4% in 1998–99. Weed control treatments lowered the weed density and weed biomass and scaled up tuber yield in both the years, but their effect on weed species differed. Metribuzin killed all the Chenopodium album plants and gave excellent control of Coronopus didymus (94%) and effective control of other weed species. Pendimethalin inhibited the germination of Chenopodium album, gave good control of arvensis and lowered the density of other weed species. Fluchloralin completely inhibited the germination of Fumaria parviflora and gave good control of Chenopodium album and Spergula arvensis, but was least effective against other weed species. The highest yield was recorded in the weed-free treatment, which was significantly superior to all other treatments. Hand weeding + earthing up, isoproturon (1.0 kg/ha), metribuzin and pendimethalin caused an identical increase in tuber yield, which was significantly higher than the increase in the rest of the treatments. Atrazine at 0.25 kg ha –1 resulted in a higher increase than when applied at 0.5 kg ha –1 . Fluchloralin, paraquat and paddy straw mulch boosted up production, but the increase in tuber yield was not significant.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Krisztina Végh, Kálmán Rajkai, Tibor Szili-Kovács, Imre Cserni and Tamás Németh

61 64 Vázquez N. — Pardo A. — Suso M.L. — M. Quemada 2006. Drainage and nitrate leaching under processing tomato growth with drip irrigation and plastic mulching. Agriculture

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54 35 53 Feil B., Garibay S. V., Ammon H. U., Stamp P. (1997): Maize production in a grass mulch system — seasonal patterns of indicators of the

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