Geographically situated some 550 kilometers southeast of Vienna and 250 kilometers southeast of Budapest, Timişoara assimilated the influences of the two former imperial capitals relatively quickly. Its European openness was facilitated by the practice of plurilingualism and multiconfessionalism. At the beginning of the 20th century, Timişoara’s population spoke five languages, namely Hungarian, German, Serbian, Romanian and Bulgarian. The main religious affiliations were Roman-Catholic, Orthodox, Greek-Catholic, Evangelic-Lutheran, Reformist-Calvinist Churches and Jewish. Interculturality and the intermingling of populations generated a very promising social culture. Analyzed from the behavioral point of view, Timişoara was an example of multi-cultural and intercultural society for two centuries, which made it possible for this center to be integrated into Europe ever since the 19th century and to represent the main link between the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and the Balkan Peninsula. The multicultural and intercultural dimensions gave consistency to the anti-totalitarian resistance over the course of the 20th century. This was why the intellectuals in the post-Ceauşescu period defined the city’s distinctiveness with the expression “the spirit of Timişoara”.
The model of regular solutions, that may be applied to binary alloys (e.g. Au−Pt, Si−Ge) has been compared to binary societies:
blacks—non-blacks in the US, catholics—non-catholics, foreigners—German citizen. The excellent agreement of phase diagrams
and intermarriage data encourages a calculation of the multicultural society by functions of thermodynamics: Solubility corresponds
to integration, miscibility gap to segregation, free enthalpy to happiness and temperature to tolerance of a society. Only
a high level of tolerance will integrate ghettos and lead to a peaceful multicultural society.
literature, multiculturalism and littérature mineure (minority literature), all of which consider topics like multilingualism, multinationalism, dislocation, or xenism in the textual spaces of literature ( Németh, 2018 , p. 5). Slovakian Hungarian
Authors:Marcel Pop, Sándor Hollós, and Judit Mészáros
The intercultural competence. [Az interkulturális kompetencia.] EQUAL, 2012.
Intercultural competence – adaptation and cooperation in a multicultural environment
This article is based on ethnographic research conducted by me in 2004–2010, alone in the beginning, then with a group of students from the University of Warsaw. The study initially involved only the memory of Jews among the elderly population of Podkarpacie. Later I expanded the topic on the ethnic relations, cultural and religious conditions in the multiethnic society. I will not, however, present here the outcomes, but will share some reflections which I had during my fielwork.Why did I choose this particular region? Podkarpacie constituted a unique area in terms of the complexity of the ethnic mosaic, even for East-Central Europe. In this multicultural world a specific relationship between ethnic groups emerged, each of which had its own specific socio-economic function. This system, created and perpetuated over the centuries of common existence, was the result of two factors — on the one hand, the internal characteristics of a single group, on the other hand, the impact of other groups.
There is hardly any ancient work as complex and multi-layered as Apuleius’ novel Metamorphoses. Whether we regard it as a mere sophisticated literary entertainment, or a religious lesson disguised as fabula Graecanica, it certainly offers many angles of research. The aim of the paper is to examine one of its most significant aspects, namely its multicultural character. Although modelled on a Greek narrative and taking place in completely Greek environments following the Greek literary tradition, it undeniably possesses an air of Romanness. The author lets his characters fluctuate somewhere between Roman and Greek, urban and provincial, local and imperial, barbarian and sophisticated. In many places, Lucius, Apuleius’ alter ego, refers to the relationships between different cultures, especially Greek and Roman, not to forget African with respect to Apuleius’ origins. But we have to look even further and see the novel as a fictitious world of its own, playing on readers’ expectations, prejudices, as well as historical and cultural background. To understand the novel, one must try to uncover these subtle nuances reflecting the tastes of its readership. The paper tries to answer the question how Apuleius treats his target audience which was, no doubt, composed of a very multifarious mass of people, without losing sight of the famous Quis ille? – a paradigm of Apuleius’ approach in this novel, in which the questions asked never seem to expect any answers, and even if so, not just one is tenable.
The paper examines a pseudonymous Slovak political document published in German in 1833 in the Croatian town of Karlovac. The analysis focuses on two questions. The first approach describes how the Slovak-Croatian relationship was developing at the linguistic-cultural stage of national movements and in what way it is reflected in the document. The second approach tries to determine how this political document written in the form of a fictitious letter raises the possibility of creating a multicultural environment for the coexistence of peoples on equal terms in the multiethnic historical Hungary. Besides claiming these ideas, the author brings up real arguments against the Magyarization efforts and dismisses them.
It has been suggested that literary history focused on reception can resolve the tension between aesthetic and historical criteria, especially if we concede that the concept of originality is deeply unstable and has both historical and aesthetic implications. The turn from impact to reception can be seen as a consequence of the fact that the ideal of the immanence of the self-contained work of art has fallen into disrepute. It is quite possible that a national literature does not lend itself as a subject to narrative history, just as the identity of an author's output or the continuity of the history of a genre can be questioned.