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1 Introduction Due to the elimination of economic barriers along with the digitalization of the economy, it has become easier for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to shift taxable profits from one jurisdiction to another than it was in the past. One

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and relevance? We have had manuscripts on some of these issues [international oil and energy problems; bribery and corruption, trade with the People's Republic of China, and international codes of conduct for multinational enterprise] but they have not

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The internalisation level of sustainability issues varies among topics and among countries. Companies give up less internalised issues for more internalised ones. Discrepancies between legal, market and cultural internalisation lead to different escape strategies: firms develop a high level environmental management system and they have nice sustainability policy and reports. These achievements cover the fact that their total emission keeps increasing and they do not proceed in solving the most crucial global community or corporate governance problems. ‘Escaper’ firms are often qualified as ‘leading’ ones, as a current stream of research is also ‘escapist’: it puts too much emphasis on sustainability efforts as compared to sustainability performance. Genuine strategies focus on hardcore sustainability issues and absolute effects rather than on issues easily solved and having high PR effects. They allow for growth in innovative firms, if they crowd out less efficient or more polluting ones. They produce positive environmental value added when sector average eco-efficiency is used as benchmark and do not accelerate market expansion and consumerism.

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In economics literature, a number of authors emphasize the need to study both domestic and foreign enterprises in order to properly grasp the effect of foreign direct investment on the local economy. Differences between foreign and domestic enterprises stem from the fact that multinational enterprises operate in a global network extending into many countries, which most certainly exerts influence on all aspects of their production activity. This paper presents a comparative analysis of performance of domestic and three types of foreign enterprises in Hungary. Total-factor pro- ductivity, factor intensity, wages, export intensity, profitability, as well as the effective rate of tax are examined by the combined tools of comparison, regression analysis and Wilcoxon test for data of the whole economy of Hungary. While foreign firms are found to contribute to the revitalization of the economy as far as capital intensity, productivity, export performance and level of wages are concerned, they do not yet seem to produce profitably.

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Dunning, J. H. (1993): Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy . Essex: Addison-Wesley. Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy

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–190. Dunning, John H. (1993): Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Addison-Wesley, Wokingham. Dunning, John H. – Lundan, Sarianna M. (2008): Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Edward Elgar

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Work culture is an integrative component of the transformation process. At first sight, Hungarian work culture appears globalized, but many of the globalized or “westernized” characteristics remain superficial. The lack of a deeply-rooted democratic culture can easily be traced at the workplace. The entrance of multinational companies in Hungary has provided opportunities and challenges to the Hungarian workforce, including the model of the “globally integrated enterprise”. While multinational enterprises become more integrated and efficient on the global level, their local social and economic contexts disintegrate. If new forms of cooperation and partnership will emerge, a new work culture in Hungary could increase in momentum and flourish. Identifying critical junctures in work culture has underscored the need for new partnerships among employees and employers who together can positively change the economic landscape and prospects for the future. This study is based on empirical research by using the methodology of value sociology and value surveys. Its major conclusion is that reinventing Hungarian work culture might be a difficult and complex process but nevertheless it is possible and also inevitable.

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Abstract  

Patent citations to the research literature offer a way for identifying and comparing contributions of scientific and technical knowledge to technological development. This case study applies this approach through a series of analyses of citations to Dutch research papers listed on Dutch-invented and foreign patents granted in the US during the years 1987–1996.First, we examined the general validity and utility of these data as input for quantitative analyses of science-technology interactions. The findings provide new empirical evidence in support of the general view that these citations reflect genuine links between science and technology. The results of the various analyses reveal several important features of industrially relevant Dutch science: (1) the international scientific impact of research papers that are also highly cited by patents, (2) the marked rise in citations to Dutch papers on foreign-invented patents; (3) the large share of author-inventor self-citations in Dutch-invented patents; (4) the growing relevance of the life sciences, (5) an increase in the importance of scientific co-operation. We also find significant differences between industrial sectors as well as major contributions of large science-based multinational enterprises, such as Philips, in domestic science-technology linkages.The paper concludes by discussing general benefits and limitations of this bibliometric approach for macro-level analysis of science bases in advanced industrialised countries like the Netherlands.

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This study does a bibliometric analysis based on keywords of conference proceedings. Scientometric investigations of conference proceedings are a new and innovative, not very common approach. The studies and papers presented may be interpreted as early indicators of scientific development. The Academy of International Business (AIB) was chosen for being the leading organization for studies in international business with contributions covering a 3-year period (2006–2008). The study presents the general structure of current scholarly interest in international business studies, clusters the keywords and reflects details on the focused research areas of the papers analyzed. The bibliometric analysis indicates three clusters: the core, the semi-periphery and the periphery. The five most occurring keywords were found to be multinational enterprise, emerging markets, foreign direct investment, internationalization and knowledge management in descending order. The analyses focus on concepts building the core (in total ten keywords), the semi-periphery which is coined by performance and related topics (60 keywords) and the periphery of the studies with governance and specific facets of it (199 keywords).

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Abstract  

Bio-pharmaceutical R&D is increasingly an international affair. Research articles published in the peer-reviewed international scientific and technical journals represent quantifiable research outputs of bio-pharmaceutical firms. Large-scale systemic measurements of worldwide trends and sectoral patterns within bio-pharmaceutical science can be gauged from these articles, where coauthored research papers are assumed to reflect research cooperation and associated knowledge flows and exchanges. We focus our attention on the largest science-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), those that produce relatively large quantities of research articles. The study deals with the worldwide output of research articles that are co-produced by corporate researchers during the years 1996–2001. We employ these publications to examine structural factors characterizing research cooperation networks within industry at the level of major geographical regions (North America, Europe, Pacific-Asia), with a breakdown by within-MNE and between-MNE network linkages. The descriptive statistics on publication output and results of network analyses of co-publication linkages not only indicate regional differences, with a central role for US companies in biopharmaceutical research, but also a variety of firm-specific research cooperation networks which enabled us to develop a tentative typology of MNEs in terms of their intra- and interorganizational patterns of research cooperation linkages.

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