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An elicitor molecule has been separated from Macrophomina phaseolina, the root rot pathogen of mungbean (Vigna radiata). Cell cultures of mung­bean cultivars one resistant and another susceptible to the pathogen, which responded to the elicitor have been established. The elicitor treatment induced rapid increases in phenolic synthesis, activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and peroxidase in the cultured cells. Relative increases in phenolic synthesis and peroxidase activity were observed in suspension-cultured cells of the resistant cultivar compared to that of the susceptible one due to elicitor treatment.

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19 Abd El-Lateef, E. M, Ashour; N. I., Farrag, A. A. (1997): Effect of foliar spray with urea and some micro-nutrients on mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) growth, yield and seed chemical

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23 2061 2069 Sharma, S. N., Prasad, R. (1999): Effects of Sesbania green manuring and mungbean residue incorporation on productivity and nitrogen

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The introduction of new crop varieties is important to improve farm productivity and increase food security in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the performance of improved varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), mungbean [(Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in comparison to local varieties through farmers’ participatory evaluation. The study was conducted during three years (2006 to 2008) with 948 farmers’ participatory field trials across 18 districts in three Eastern provinces (Nangarhar, Laghman and Kunar) of Afghanistan. One or more improved varieties of wheat, rice, mungbean and potato were compared to the most popular local variety. Data were recorded on the grain yield of wheat, rice and mungbean, and the tuber yield of potato. On average, the improved varieties outyielded local varieties by 69, 57, 70 and 65% for wheat, rice, mungbean, and potato, respectively. Economic analysis in terms of net benefit demonstrated that the adoption of improved varieties resulted in additional incomes of US$ 1840, 1299, 574 and 790 ha-1 for wheat, rice, mungbean and potato, respectively. These findings underline the importance of on-farm farmers’ participatory technology evaluation in developing countries to disseminate new crop varieties to improve farm productivity.

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A field study conducted for two years (1995-96 and 1996-97) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi on a sandy clay loam soil showed that the application of NP increased the total grain production of a rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.5-0.6 t ha -1 , NK by 0.3-0.5 t ha -1 and NPK by 0.8-0.9 t ha -1 compared to N alone, indicating that the balanced use of primary nutrients was more advantageous than their imbalanced application. The application of farmyard manure (FYM) along with NPK further increased the total productivity of the rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.3-0.6 t ha -1 , the organic C by 0.13%, the available N by 10.7 kg ha -1 , the available P by 4.7 kg ha -1 and the available K by 15 kg ha -1 compared to NPK after two crop cycles of the system. The results of the present study thus indicate that integrated nutrient management involving FYM and NPK fertilizers is a must for the sustainability of a cropping system.

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, S. N., Prasad, R. (1999): Effects of Sesbania green manuring and mungbean residue incorporation on productivity and nitrogen uptake of a rice-wheat cropping system. Bioresource Tech. , 67, 171-175. Effects of Sesbania green

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): Heritability estimates of quantitative characters in mungbean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Crop Sci. , 10 , 240–241. Escuro P. B. Heritability estimates of quantitative characters in

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Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most popular highland cereal in South Asia, and hybrids are being promoted to enhance yields. Thus, a field study evaluated the growth and yields of two hybrid and two open-pollinated varieties in two major (wet) and minor (dry) seasons of Sri Lanka, when grown as a mono crop and when intercropped with mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The growth and yields of the hybrids were greater under both mono and mixed crop conditions in the major seasons, while the performance of open-pollinated varieties was significantly superior in the minor seasons, when the crops are subjected to moisture stress due to lower rainfall. The potential of using different types of maize for smallholder cropping in South Asia in the two seasons is presented.

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293 Chhabra, K. S. and Kooner, B. S. (1998): Insect pest management in mungbean and black gram: Status and strategies. In: R. K. Upadhyay, K. G. Mukherji and R. L. Rajak (eds): IPM System in

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159 Sharma, S. N. — Sharma S. K. (2006): Effect of different combination of inorganic nutrients and farmyard manure on the sustainability of rice-wheat-mungbean croping system, Acta

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