After three decades of our personal, publicly conducted discussion with Ernő Lendvai, in 1999 at a conference organized in memory of Bence Szabolcsi, I raised again my objections related his theories. Since my lecture was given in Hungarian, and its printed version was published in Hungarian language (Muzsika 2000, Bartók-analitika 2003), I feel necessary to present some of my objetions on an international forum as well, with particular aspect to the fact that in the Bartók literature - in spite of serious criticism (Petersen, Gillies) - several analysts employ up to now Lendvai's theories in a servile way. My objections are focussed upon four points. 1. The extension of Riemann's three-function theory to the twelvetone system is a theoretical arbitrariness and an impasse. 2. The axis interpretation of the tonalities - by identification of polar keys - is in flat contradiction with Bartók's tonal thinking. 3. The pentatony interpreted as a golden section system is very much doubtful according basic experiences of the ethnomusicology. 4. The typical Bartókian chord structures - named by Lendvai α, β etc. - are phenomenologically correct, but their interpretation by Fibonacci figures is arbitrary, because the actual intervals represent another ratios.
The major influence on the music of György Kurtág and Péter Eötvös can be seen in Bartók's compositions. Both composers described his music as their ”mother tongue”. Results of an interview with Eötvös, an analysis of his composition ”Kosmos” and sketches of Kurtág, lead to the conclusion that both composers' view of Bartók is heavily influenced by Lendvai's theories. Kurtág's Opus 30a serves as an example for the use of Lendvai's theory at a harmonic level.
‘Middle music’ and the ‘middle music theory’ of the German Democratic Republic have received little interest, although their products survive until today. Kurt Schwaen is known for his compositions for folk instruments and for his famous children’s songs such as “Wenn Mutti früh zur Arbeit geht” [When mom goes to work early in the morning]. Schwaen was an author of music for the folk, namely for amateur singers, mostly children, or lay instrumentalists, who played in mandolin or accordion orchestras. Schwaen’s compositions may be considered as a variant of socialistic realism in music. They form a modern folk music by both respecting neomodal writing, derived from the 1920s, as well as by including international folk material and promising an authentic and unsuspicious tune which German folk music lacked since the Third Reich.
The gains from the folk music collection movement initiated by Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály in the first decade of the twentieth century set a path for Hungarian music theory that continued to influence the approach to composition in later decades. Placing folklore material in composed, classical works is complicated by tonal and formal problems and by political overtones. For quotations or thematic material from folk music may introduce complex implications and associations. So the way a composer imbues folk music calls for more than mere technical skill – it embodies an artistic statement. This article analyzes two works by the Hungarian composer and ethnomusicologist László Lajtha (1892–1963): his string quartets nos. 7 and 10 completed in the early 1950s. Through these two quartets I attempt to fathom the aesthetic, ideological and personal motives behind Lajtha's use of folk material in classical composition. Analysis of the composing process involved and the reception the two works received reveal the manifold scope that folk music brings as a source of inspiration.
One of the more surprising developments in recent American music theory has been the revival of interest in traditional, as opposed to Schenkerian, approaches to musical form. Spearheading this renewal are William Caplin’s 1998 treatise
, and James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy’s more recent
Elements of Sonata Theory
(2006). Both treatises, however, ignore the eighteenth-century operatic repertory entirely. And while valuable studies of eighteenth-century aria-forms exist (notably by James Webster and Mary Hunter), such studies generally predate the advent of the new American
. There is, as a result, a gap between the most recent developments in the theory of Classical form and our current understanding of formal processes in late-eighteenth-century opera.This paper sketches one possible way across that gap. Even a casual survey of Haydn’s Eszterháza operas suggests that formal processes play out in ways related to, but nonetheless distinct from, their articulation in Haydn’s instrumental music (in response, no doubt, to the particular exigencies of writing texted music for the operatic stage). Thanks to its characteristic attention to the smallest possible form-functional units — the presentational, continuational and cadential phrases that subsist at the intra-thematic level — Caplin’s approach to Classical form proves particularly adaptable to this new context. The paper illustrates the analytic usefulness of Caplin’s approach for analyzing vocal music through a consideration of representative examples from
Il mondo della luna
than six years taught composition and musictheory at the conservatory of Bern. Ligeti greatly respected Veress, both personally and in his capacity as a composer. 4 Attesting to this, it appears that his former professor was Ligeti’s initial point of
Authors:Judit Váradi, Tímea Szűcs, Mária Strenáčiková, and Mária Strenáčiková
secondary music teachers is not uniform. In this case, musictheory teachers must complete a 5 + 1 year training, whereas teachers of instruments ought to supplement their bachelor’s and master’s degree with a 1-year teacher training. For music teachers, the
Hungarian University of Dance. She teaches folk singing, folk musictheory, musictheory, and history of music. Besides teaching, she spends a lot of time on stage as a folksinger and instrument (tarogato) player. In 2018, she got a Junior Prima Prize in
Authors:Marie-Helene Zimmerman Nilsson and Colette Murphy
aspects of content, such as harmony, counter point, aesthetics and musictheory. The coteaching in the course helped students to create an understanding of an educational process characterised by mutual support and diversity, where collaboration and
required complex expertise includes topics from education theory, music psychology, sociology, music aesthetics, music pedagogy, music history, musictheory, communication, marketing, and management. To carry out music pedagogy in a successful way, the