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This study surveys the musical notation appearing in the liturgical manuscripts of the Order of St. Paul the First Hermit from the fourteenth until the eighteenth century. As a Hungarian foundation, the Pauline Order adopted one of the most elaborate and proportionate Gregorian chant notations of the medieval Catholic Church, the mature calligraphic Hungarian/Esztergom style, and used it faithfully, but in a special eremitical way in its liturgical manuscripts over an exceptionally long period, far beyond the Middle Ages. The research sought to study all the Pauline liturgical codices and codex fragments in which this Esztergom-Pauline notation emerges, then record the single neume shapes and supplementary signs of each source in a database. Systematic comparison has produced many results. On the one hand, it revealed the chronological developments of the Pauline notation over about four centuries. On the other hand, it has been possible to differentiate notation variants, to separate a rounded-flexible and a later more angular, standardized Pauline writing form based on the sources, thereby grasping the transition to Gothic penmanship at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. A further result of the study is the discovery of some retrospective Pauline notation types connected to the Early Modern and Baroque period, after the Tridentine Council. The characteristics of the notations of the choir books in the Croatian and the Hungarian Pauline provinces have been well defined and some individual subtypes distinguished – e.g. a writing variant of the centre of the Croatian Pauline province, Lepoglava.

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The asymmetrical aksak rhythm represents one of the distinctive and most vital features of the musical traditions on the Balkans. In spite of that, this rhythm system - discovered only at the beginning of the 20th century in Bulgaria - has almost been unknown, both to the musicological/ ethnomusicological sciences, and to the world of serious music. Owing to inadequate transcriptions of most of the musical notations of the vocal and instrumental music from the beginning of the 20th century, it was hardly possible to perceive the presence of this asymmetric rhythm in the Balkan area. Because of that the ethnomusicological results of this paper are based primarily on the transcribed musical-folkloristic material dating from the second half of the 20th century. But, regardless of that or other difficulties, the musical material available enabled me to establish the presence and the different forms of the aksak rhythm in the Balkan region. Along this guideline, my intention is, on the basis of the available literatures and musical notations, to point out the most frequent forms and the distribution of the aksak rhythm, its earliest appearances in the works of composed music, as well as the continuity and changes of this rhythm in the vocal and instrumental tradition of the Balkan peoples.

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Among the European countries, Hungary had the richest corpus of plainchant in vernacular in the 17th century. The complete liturgy was put down with a musical notation for the first time in Gál Huszár’s songbook (1574). The Eperjes Gradual (1635) acquired a special position among the Protestant graduals in Hungarian by being the only Lutheran gradual and the only one containing polyphonic pieces. A comparison of the Magne Deus-melody in both sources concludes that the differences of the two monophonic melodies can be interpreted as reminiscences of an organum-like polyphonic practice. This hypothesis is sustained by a series of examples including not only melodies of Gregorian origin but also Hungarian-texted monophonic hymns from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

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they include listening to music as reception, singing and reading and writing musical notation as reproduction, and improvisation as creation, which is the best way of developing one's imagination. The goal of listening to music, along with singing, at

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, scholarly studies, musical notations and recorded material. 2 The most meaningful source for understanding worldviews and attitudes was through encounters with the people who remembered and continued the tradition. During the long hours spent with them, I

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