The idea of ‘national’ in Croatian 19th-century music shows evolutionary tendencies, which can be articulated in four phases. It started in the period 1800–1830 as a construct leading towards higher general musical standards, displaying universality above particularity as its ideal. It continued in the period 1830–1850 with pragmatic treatment of music as incidental to poetry, supporting non-musical, mostly political issues, where universality equaled particularity. It achieved in the period 1850–1870 the status of a substantial part in the scholarly re-construction of national history, still equaling universality with particularity. Finally, as a concept of ethnic or national art music, it reached in the period 1870–1916 a status of general interest in national cultural life and education, displaying particularity above universality.
In German speaking countries Haydn’s oratorios, and particularly
, have played an important role in the repertoire of choral societies and music festivals since the 1810s. However, in France, and also in Paris — “the capital of the 19th century” —, Haydn’s oratorios were performed only on rare occasions, and then they were given mostly in parts. The reasons for these circumstances can be seen in the institutional and esthetical context of the Parisian concert life. With respect to professional concert societies, like the
Société des Concerts du Conservatoire
, rigid obstacles were on the one hand the enormous financial risk of a complete oratorio performance. On the other hand the established type of concert programmes with its varied mixture of vocal and instrumental pieces functioned as a barrier. Most important was a lack of mixed amateur choral societies, which developed in Paris quite late, primary in the 1840s, and then only little by little. Since oratorio performances lasted to be mostly a private affaire in the first half of the 19th century, it is not surprising, that Haydn’s oratorios were studied in aristocratic salons of Princesse de Belgiojoso and Baron Delmar with the intention of both education and entertainment.
(hereafter referred to as Bosnia). After forty years of AustroHungarian rule (1878–1918), Bosnia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Since musicalculture is always related to the political and
musicalculture in Serbia. Plenty of Czech musicians formed a significant part of Serbian musical society until World War II. Roksanda PEJOVIĆ, “Češki muzičari u srpskom životu (1844−1918) I,” Нови Звук , no. 8 (1996), 51−58.; ead.,“Češki mu ziča ri u
The paper gives an overview of the standing and socio-cultural importance of the jojk-tradition among the Sami (Laplanders), show different stylistic traits between the Southern and Nortern jojk dialects and discuss the socio-historical implications and reasons for these different styles. The influence and impact of the massmedia from the 1950s and the socio-economical changes within Sweden, Norway and Finland leding to new developments within the musical culture of the Sami will be the topic of the second part. It will be shown how different administrative traditions within the majority peoples have influenced the possibilities for a new kind of musical tradition within the Sami. The different stylistic blend of jojk and contemporary forms of popular music, as well as the functions and use of these new forms of modern Sami music are discussed.
The author’s thesis is that from the beginning of the establishment of the so-called Franko-Roman Liturgy (thus at the latest from the Carolingian era) the texts of the Bible were primarily mediated to the literate population through liturgical and liturgical-musical culture. Thus the quotation of Biblical texts was greatly influenced by their liturgical use, and the knowledge connected to them as a result of it. Texts written for a wider audience were based on passages common in, or only found in liturgical use. Such are the pericopes (designated passages of the Bible) of larger Holidays and more common events, and the sung liturgical elements connected to these Holidays, or other important dates. This background knowledge influenced not only works of a religious nature, but also chiefly secular texts, among these historiographic writings. The paper analyses a short excerpt from a Hungarian chronicle (Chronici Hungarici compositio saeculi XIV, c. 164), proving that it is a cento of commonly used, and thus well-known liturgical texts from the Bible.
Mme De Staël’s Corinne ou l’Italie (1807) offered the most influential statement on Italy and the Italians by a foreign writer in 19th-century Europe. It gives a fruitful opportunity to investigate what a 19th-century foreign writer thought both of Italian music and of music as a symbol of the Italian national identity. The overview of the Italian operatic repertoire and opera productions leads to the conclusion that Italy as a nation was substantially absent from the operatic scene while, on the contrary, the Italian society made of opera the most typical entertainment and of the ‘palchetto’ an unavoidable status symbol. A similar picture of Italian society and opera is already outlined in De Staël’s novel, which created a ‘Romantic’ myth of Italy and a portrait of Italian ‘musicality’ as a typical and essential element of Italy’s cultural identity and as a substitute of a still lacking political identity of that nation. The paper investigates the cultural and philosophical origin of this view of Italian musical culture and its impact on the European perception of Italy as a nation during the 19th century.
Összefoglaló. A tanulmány egy empirikus kutatás eredményét mutatja
be, melynek célja négy közép-európai ország 19 iskolájában folyó zenei nevelési
gyakorlat elemzése és a tanulók (N = 805) zenei kultúrájának
kialakulására ható tényezők vizsgálata. A szakirodalmi előzmények ismeretében a
felmérés feltérképezi az egyes országok oktatási sajátosságai közötti
hasonlóságot és különbséget. Kiemelten vizsgálja a 8–15 éves tanulók énekléshez
fűződő attitűdjét és az azt befolyásoló tényezőket, rávilágít a szülők
kulturális tőkéjének hatására. Eredményeink szerint a különböző országok eltérő
tananyaga és módszertani útmutatója ellenére a tevékenységközpontú, élményalapú
oktatás iránymutató pedagógiai módszer a művészeti nevelés területén.
Summary. The study presents the results of an empirical research,
the aim is analysing the music education in 19 schools of four Central European
countries and examining the factors influencing the development of students’
musical culture (N = 805). Based on the background of the
literature, the survey maps the similarities and differences between the
educational peculiarities of each country. It examines the 8–15 years old
pupils’ attitudes towards singing and the underlying factors, as well as the
impact of parents’ cultural capital. According to our results, despite the
different curricula and methodological guidelines of different countries,
activity-based, experience-based education is a guiding pedagogical method in
the field of arts education.
resulted from his studies as well as from the several trips that he took abroad, visiting festivals and giving concerts, established him as a music scholar of Western musicalculture – most definitely the only music scholar and authentic representative of