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the Transformation of Social Identity Eastern and Central Europe 61 81 SMITH, Anthony D. 1991: National Identity. London: Penguin Books Ltd. National Identity VELIKONJA, Mitja

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Great cities are usually considered to be cites of modernity, so it may seem a bit bizarre to connect them with national identity. Indeed, the face of the Hungarian capital is rather international, reflecting well the universal tendencies of modernization and urbanization that occurred from the end of 18th century. There are, however, some key-buildings and a few other examples in Budapest that give evidence of a counter intention: to provide architecture with a distinctive character as an expression of Hungarian nationality in a modern sense. The 19th century was a high period of Nationalism, and the issue of national style in the arts was raised in many places in Europe and even in the Americas. How could it have been avoided in a multi-ethnic Hungary that tried in vain to regain its independence from the Habsburg Empire throughout the century? It is no wonder that the national character of the arts was the subject of a more or less permanent discussion from the 1850s to the outbreak of World War I. The following paper offers an overview of the urban development of Budapest, followed by presentation of the concepts of the national style with reference to the example of buildings erected in the capital city and a brief discussion of their antecedents.

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distinction between the national identity see Pál Hatos, "Emlékezet, identitás, ünnep. A genfi történeti hagyomány eszköztára", in Rendi társadalom - polgári társadalom XIV (to be published in 2002). Reinhart Koselleck, Vergangene

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Mme De Staël’s Corinne ou l’Italie (1807) offered the most influential statement on Italy and the Italians by a foreign writer in 19th-century Europe. It gives a fruitful opportunity to investigate what a 19th-century foreign writer thought both of Italian music and of music as a symbol of the Italian national identity. The overview of the Italian operatic repertoire and opera productions leads to the conclusion that Italy as a nation was substantially absent from the operatic scene while, on the contrary, the Italian society made of opera the most typical entertainment and of the ‘palchetto’ an unavoidable status symbol. A similar picture of Italian society and opera is already outlined in De Staël’s novel, which created a ‘Romantic’ myth of Italy and a portrait of Italian ‘musicality’ as a typical and essential element of Italy’s cultural identity and as a substitute of a still lacking political identity of that nation. The paper investigates the cultural and philosophical origin of this view of Italian musical culture and its impact on the European perception of Italy as a nation during the 19th century.

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The aim of this research is to find out in what degree religious dent tyin Serbian society has become a self-governed identty, a kind of an dent try for itself, or, in what degree it is still part of national dentity. Is the religious belonging (religious dentity) a reliable mark of ethnicity and, if so, in what measure? The research has been done on the participants of student protest (SP) Belgrade n winter 1996/97. The relationship between religious belonging (religious identity) and national identity is observed in relation to universal processes of cosmopolitization, individualization and retraditionalization.

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Discusses the notions of national identity, national music and popular music as they emerged in Italian music periodicals during the years 1840–1890, in relation to the process of Italy’s political unification and the dissemination of foreign operas such as French grands opéras in the years 1840–1870 and Wagner’s Musikdramen from 1871 on. Essays and articles by relevant critics and musicians, such as Abramo Basevi and Francesco D’Arcais are discussed. Articles by lesser known journalists such as Pietro Cominazzi and Mattia Cipollone are also taken into account. The use of words like “national” and “popular” is analysed when referring to Italian opera, to its history and to the operas by foreign composers.

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Abstract  

Paper presented at the conference 'Literary Histories and the Development of Identities' sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada involving members of the I.C.L.A. Coordinating Committee at Queen's University, Canada, in the Fall of 2001.

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The role of the popular play in preserving natinal identity

The example of Velika Pisanica, Croatia, with additional reference to Burgenland and Slovenia

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Imre Gráfik

1993: Magyarok Szlavóniában. Világszövetség II/3/1–2. Hofer Tanás 1994: Construction of the Folk Cultural Heritage in Hungary and Rival Versions of National Identity. In: Hofer Tamás (ed.): Hungarians between “East” and “West

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I would not suppose that the excellent, scholarly and well-educated director of the national theatre, the classical consignatory and home of Hungarian theatrical literature and public spirit, would touch József Katona's masterpiece with profane hands. (That's right! That's right!) Not a single letter must be added, not a word must be taken away from it. Otherwise Katona would be turning over in his grave. I can understand that the director of the national theatre would like to re- direct the play in series of performances; to change and synchronise that masterpiece with the taste of the contemporary decadent and sick psyche, and  I would say  with the rotten morals of the con- temporary era; to make Katona's masterpiece a hugely popular and literary success. Instead of these changes, however, I would rather say that Katona's masterpiece should remain unperformed. Let it be a book of prayers for the inhibitors of the peaceful and sorrowful Hungarian settlements, the Hungarian intellectuals who would rather read it in silence; and then mourn, be passionate, and contemplate silently on its eternal values. But that masterpiece cannot be put on the most important stage of the nation in an altered form. I think it would be an assault against the living conscience of the Hungarian nation. (That's right! That's right!) I would not question the good will of the director of the national theatre, but it is impossible to carry out such an assault. (Agreement all around.)

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In my paper I shall investigate the major changes in the concept of the national theatre from the early debates on the Hamburg Theatre in 1767 until the 2005 establishment of the National Theatre of Scotland. The starting assumption is that while in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the notion of the national theatre was regarded as a means for the integration of a nation or even an empire in most Western-European countries, in Eastern-Europe, the debates on and later the realization of the national theatres took place within the context of and against oppressive imperiums. In Eastern Europe, the realization of National Theatre was utilised for representing a unified nation in a virtual way, and its role was to maintain national identity and national culture. In present day Scotland, however, the notion of the national theatre has changed again as the National Theatre is used to represent a diverse and multicultural Scotland.

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