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Abstract

Slovakia is heir of everything, what left its tracks on the territory. It is heir of art, which has not only Slavic-Slovak, but also German–Austrian–Hungarian origins, with Franco-Roman touch. It was suppressed or underlined by catholic–protestant–Jewish–orthodox (but also free-thinking and free-mason) traditions. It is out of doubt that Slovaks do not exist from the world's beginning, but that they have become Slovaks and everything, that had a significant value for them, could be national. A crucial role played the national identity; but in most cases, this cannot be traced back. Therefore, it has only a limited role within history of art. The study speak for overcoming the very national-defensive character of the historiographies and focusing on more interesting matters.

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This paper analyzes the main connotative components of national symbols of the Ukraine, which have found a reflection in the Ukrainian mentality, images as well as in the language (in folklore, idioms, proverbs, etc.). These connotative components contain in their structure floristic elements, i.e. the names of different trees and flowers. From time immemorial, trees and flowers have served as different symbols (e.g. state, religious), and they have been an essential part of many human cultures. The paper presents the main floristic symbols of the Ukraine (compared to Russian symbols) and their reflection in the Ukrainian mentality and language on the idiomatic and metaphorical levels.

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Belarus, young and still somewhat undefined nation that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, of all its East European neighbours, has the least developed national historiographical tradition. Neither is it known as a separate entity. For many centuries, Belarus was a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which in 1569-1795 formed a confederation with Poland. Oleg Łatyszonek's and Ales´ Bely's article tries to restore the picture of historical relations between Belarus and Hungary in 13-17th centuries. Certain historical consistency can be seen: Hungarian interest in Belarus has always been connected to Hungarian claims to “Galicia et Lodomeria”, Halycz-Volhynia, mighty Ukrainian principality whose lands eventually fell prey to its neighbours. First possible trace of contacts between the Belarusian Principality of Polatsk and Hungary dates back to 1217/1218, and may be seen as a sign of alliance between Hungary, Suzdal and Polatsk, directed against Halycz-Volhynia. In the mid-14th century, Grand Duchy of Lithuania absorbed today's Belarus and continued to expand southwards, which caused its clash with Hungary for the heritage of Halycz-Volhynia, including the SW Belarus (vicinity of Brest). Terra Alborum Ruthenorum is mentioned in several Hungarian accounts of these events, and it may be argued that the would-be political name of Belarus was coined by the Hungarians in 14th century. Another hypothesis links the origin of the 'Double Cross', one of the Belarusian national symbols, with the heraldic arms of the Kingdom of Hungary. Hungarian claims to the SW Belarus remained a stable geopolitical factor in the history of the region, and the last remarkable case of these claims was the Compact of Radnoth between Sweden and Transylvania that led to a short-term Hungarian occupation of Brest in 1657.

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Az evéssel kapcsolatos civilizációs zavarok gyakoribbá válásának hátterében a kulturális hatások lényegesek. Ezek között a nemzeti identitásvesztés fontos lehet. A nemzeti identitás kialakulásában az ételekkel és étkezéssel kapcsolatos hagyományok szerepe alapvető. A nemzeti szimbólumok között számos étel található, amelyeket gyakran használunk a nemzetek jellemzésében. Az ételek fontos szerepet töltenek be a kulturális emlékezetben is. A közös emlékezet jelentősége nagy az identitásban, s az ételekre, ételkészítésre való emlékezés a kultúrákban fontos etnikai összetartó erő. Ezt segíti az ételek és az étkezés időt strukturáló hatása is. A globalizáció korában a nemzeti ételek segítik a speciális nemzeti karakter megőrzését, de az európai szokásokhoz való alkalmazkodás megkívánja az ételkészítés átalakulását is. A jövő kérdése, hogy ez a hatás mennyire jár a nemzeti identitás csökkenésével, és fokozza-e az evéssel kapcsolatos patológiás megnyilvánulások gyakoriságát.

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of Creating Sámi Handicraft Duodji – From National Symbol to Norm and Resistance . In Mantila , Harri – Sivonen , Jari – Brunni , Sisko – Leinonen , Kaisa – Palviainen , Santeri (eds.) Congressus Duodecimus Internationalis Fenno

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. Hofer , Tamás 1989 Paraszti hagyományból nemzeti szimbólumok – adalékok a magyar nemzeti műveltség történetéhez az utolsó száz évben [National Symbols from the Peasant Tradition – Addenda to the History of the Hungarian Nation in the Past One

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loaded or not even loaded at all with negative connotations even in diasporas with a complicated history. Other elements of culture, such as literature, language, history, religion, traditions, economy or national symbols could more be it. Probably, that

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the 17th -18th. century nobleman and combining western and Turkish elements, was a national symbol not because of its Hungarian cultural origin, but because of its unchanging nature. In this era, folk clothing was considered to be vulgar; therefore, no

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national symbols from representative elements of folk tradition (Martin 1984:355). Kaluser dances proved to be the most suitable for this purpose. 20 According to Anca Giurchescu, a stylized version of the dance was already being used at various

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. Figure 28. Buddhist King Ashoka’s royal insignia accepted as the national emblem of India. Notice the wheel under the lions (source: https://www.culturalindia.net/national-symbols

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