The presentation begins with introductory remarks centred principally on the topicality of the legal status of dual nationals. Whereas earlier the doctrine of State sovereignty required that an individual have only one nationality, the status of dual nationality is now increasingly accepted, though not created, by States. The development of human rights law is of importance insofar as statelessness is now considered to be a greater evil. It then continues with some basic principles in international law, the first being that it is for each State to decide who are its nationals. This leads to a discussion of some landmarks in the development of the international law of nationality: the Tunis and Morocco Nationality Decrees before the PCIJ in 1923; the League of Nations codifying Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of nationality Laws, 1930; and the Nottebohm case before the ICJ, 1953, in particular. Te greatest contribution to the topic has come from the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, for three reasons: for rejecting Article 4 of the 1930 Convention, embodying the principle of non-responsibility; further, it clarified how dominant and effective nationality can be determined for the purposes of the nationality of claims; and it developed the equitable doctrine contained in the caveat to Case A/18 that the status of dual nationality must not be used unjustly or fraudulently. Lastly, the possibility of a “dormant” nationality is accepted, and the European Convention on Nationality, 1997, and the International Law Commission's drafts on Diplomatic Protection noted.
According to the recent amendment of the Hungarian Citizenship Act, Hungarians living outside the borders can acquire an additional nationality, and become dual or multiple nationals. The study analyses the prohibition or recognition of dual nationality and the relevant practice of neighbouring states as the main purpose of the amendment was to enable Hungarians living in territories detached owing to historical events to acquire nationality. By assuming international obligations states may limit their discretion in matters of nationality, which otherwise fall within the domestic jurisdiction of states. Human rights drive the regulation of nationality in certain cases all the more towards the realm of international law. For that reason, human rights limiting the regulation of nationality, such as the right to a nationality, the prohibition of (arbitrary) deprivation of nationality and the prohibition of discrimination, also need to be examined. The analysis also extends to the lack of effectiveness of nationality of Hungarians concerned as well as the binding nature of the principle of effectiveness. The study concludes that the principle of effectiveness may not serve as a basis for other states to declare non-recognition of nationality of these individuals. Finally, obligations under bilateral treaties on good neighbourliness, confi dence and friendly co-operation concluded by Hungary and several neighbouring states between 1992 and 1996 are taken into consideration, as well.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Habsburg Monarchy was a political entity giving home to great numbers of people of different nationalities and ethnicities. However, the dominant power in the structure of this multi-ethnic state was reserved for the Germans. Yet, the ever more emphatic demands of ethnic groups of other origins for more autonomy had a serious impact on the political and cultural supremacy of the Germans. Based on this recorded background, I will examine in the context of my paper to what extent Viennese music criticism of Franz Liszt’s symphonic programme music proves to be influenced by the reception of his national facets of identity. To do justice to this concern, the first step is to gain an overview of what statements were made during the journalistic discourse on Liszt’s symphonic programme music regarding its nationality. Building on this, it will be determined what function these statements had in the argumentative mediation of the aesthetic judgement on Liszt’s programmatic compositions. Against the political background outlined above, the question arises as to whether the Hungarian-national facet of Liszt’s identity in particular was instrumentalized by Viennese critics in order to strengthen negative judgments about his œuvre by means of a politically motivated German-nationalist narrative.
This paper introduces alphabet spectra which are the 26 frequencies of occurrence of scientific papers in a given sample with at least one author of each initial, A, B,...Z. The sum of these frequencies exceeds unity because of multiple authorships. Formulae are given relating this sum to the mean number of authors per paper in the sample. The method is applied to show the increase in this number over the last 15 years in different fields of science and for different countries. The alphabet spectra vary greatly depending on the nationality of the scientists concerned and can be compared to frequency absorption spectra for chemical elements or molecules. The spectra can be used to determine the national composition of a country's scientific authors and how this has changed with time.
This paper analyses the nationalities of the editorial board members of the top 20 journals (according to their impact factor
in the ISI Journal Citation Report, Science Edition 2005) serving 15 scientific disciplines. A total of 281 journals were
analysed (some journals crossed disciplinary boundaries) and 10,055 of their editorial board members were identified. Some
53% of board members were from the United States. Europe provided 32%, with the United Kingdom making the greatest contribution
(9.8%). The analysis of scientific output by nationality in these journals showed a significant correlation, in all disciplines,
with the representation of the corresponding nations on the editorial boards. The composition of editorial boards may therefore
provide a useful indicator for measuring a country’s international scientific visibility. The present results should be taken
into account in the design of national policies with the aim of enhancing the presence of a country’s most prestigious scientists
on the editorial boards of the main international journals.
In April, 1806, nearly four hundred nobles met in a session of the Közép-Szolnok county assembly in Northern Transylvania. The speaker before them came from a prestigious family whose ancestors had addressed that body for two centuries. None of this was unusual. What was extraordinary was that the speaker was nine years old. In his youthful voice, he announced to them his intention to become a patriot:
The paper presents the reseraches of the Research Institute of the Slovaks in Hungary from the grounding times until nowdays with an accent on the scientific work of Anna Gyivicsán, Mária Zsilák, Mária Homišinová and Katarína Balleková. Then presents the aims and methods of the projects in Slovakian language in Békés county, language usage in Tótkomlós, The Slovakian language in Hungary. The author concludes that István Nyomárkay and the PhD School of the Loránd Eötvös University had a great influence on the linguistic studies of the Institute.
nationality was the conclusion of the Trianon Peace Treaty. This study aims to analyse this regulation as the historical origin of the 2010 amendment of Act No. LV of 1993 on Hungarian Citizenship. In the aftermath of World War I, Hungary had to relinquish