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Authors: Espen Aarseth, Anthony M. Bean, Huub Boonen, Michelle Colder Carras, Mark Coulson, Dimitri Das, Jory Deleuze, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Christopher J. Ferguson, Maria C. Haagsma, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Zaheer Hussain, Jeroen Jansz, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Lawrence Kutner, Patrick Markey, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Nicole Prause, Andrew Przybylski, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Jan Van Looy and Antonius J. Van Rooij

Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

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An investigation of harmful algae in Nigerian coastal waters was made between 1996 and 2004. Samples were collected from the coastal states of the Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Guinea. The states were Lagos, Ondo, Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers states. A total of 24 taxa were identified and classified into three divisions, namely Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta and Dinophyta. The Dinophyta represented the bulk of the algae comprising 18 taxa in the genera Ceratium, Dinophysis, Gymnodinium, Peridinium, Protoperidinium and Prorocentrum. Some of the species are capable of producing noxious blooms with attendant negative implications for the ecosystems, ecology, economy, recreation and human health.

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Economic literature has recently paid increased attention to the interrelationships between resource (oil) wealth (i.e. dependence on exports of oil and other raw materials) on one hand, and macroeconomic performance (and socio-political system) on the other. Most authors find that resource wealth has a negative impact on economic development, and suggest that resource-oriented countries should diversify their economies. This article reviews some economic-policy dilemmas, and also examines the need for, and the constraints of, structural changes in Russia, an atypical, but quite important resource-dependent country. The negative implications of the “resource curse”are valid in the case of this country, as well. Russia has become resource-oriented despite the priority of heavy (military) industry development during the Soviet period. Although in some fields Soviet manufacturing was extensive and strong, it proved inefficient and internationally non-competitive. Engineering - the largest industrial sector - was never export-oriented. In addition, post-Soviet decline led to significant de-industrialisation. Thus, the present dependence on oil and gas is more a consequence than a cause of the weakness of manufacturing. Government-managed reorientation of resources from raw materials sectors onto manufacturing and services (urged by almost everyone but showing little progress) is a necessary but far not sufficient condition of the economic modernisation.

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The possibilities of the elimination of continuous cropping negative implications on the grain yield and microbial soil diversity were investigated. A stationary field experiment was established on Luvi-Haplic Chernozem. Statistically higher grain yield was found in the variant with mineral fertilization and straw and organic fertiliser Veget® incorporation (5.58 t.ha−1) compared with the variant with mineral fertilization only (4.87 t.ha−1) and with the variant with mineral fertilization and straw incorporation (4.90 t.ha−1). Statistically higher straw yield was found in the variant with mineral fertilization and straw and organic fertiliser Veget® incorporation (6.21 t.ha−1) compared with the variant with mineral fertilization only (4.41 t.ha−1). By cultivar Ebi, the grain yield was significantly higher in comparison to the cultivar Petrana. The lowest metabolic diversity of microbial communities and their respiration activity was found out in the variant with mineral fertilizer. On the other hand, the increase of functional diversity of microorganisms, their respiration activity and the number of cultivable bacteria was found in the variant with mineral fertilization and straw incorporation as well as in the variant with mineral fertilization and straw and organic fertiliser Veget® incorporation.

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Authors: Doug Hyun Han, Minkyoung Yoo, Perry F. Renshaw and Nancy M. Petry

negative implications for a majority of healthy game users. In addition to classification, understanding a disease’s natural course is fundamental to evaluating its epidemiology ( Bhopal, 2008 ) and treatment ( Porta, 2014 ). In a review of

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-blind, placebo controlled study on psilocybin use in healthy adults found no negative implications for somatic health ( Hasler, Grimberg, Benz, Huber, & Vollenweider, 2004 ). The researchers also reported that the effects of ASC induced through psilocybin could

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others. More specifically, duration met the needs of the initial aspects of the fantasies and their negative implications on participant’s mental space, whereas reports of being in a more advanced step met broader needs beyond these fantasies

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of interest to maintain harmonious social relationships ( Graziano & Eisenberg, 1997 ) and has significant negative implications for interpersonal adjustment throughout development ( Laursen, Hafen, Rubin, Booth-LaForce, & Rose-Krasnor, 2010 ; Wang

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also evidence that smartphone usage has negative implications for health, relationship, and work ( Kuss & Griffiths, 2017 ). For one of the smartphone addicts, smartphone use had also contributed in strengthening their relationships with family and

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