Authors:Dieter Vanderelst, Sara Speybroeck, and Niko Speybroeck
According to the WHO, zoonoses are diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. A subgroup of these diseases have been termed Neglected Tropical Zoonoses (e.g. Hotez
Recently, a number of neurodevelopmental studies of hitherto neglected taxa have become available, contributing to questions relating to the evolution of the nervous system of Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia + Lophophorata). As an example, neurogenesis of echiurans showed that these worm-shaped spiralians, which as adults do not exhibit any signs of segmentation, do show such traits during ontogeny, e.g. by segmentally arranged perikarya and commissures. Similarly, sipunculan worms, which have a single ventral nerve cord in the adult stage, develop this nerve cord by gradual fusion of a paired larval nerve during metamorphosis, and show transitional stages of segmentation. These findings indicate that echiurans, annelids and sipunculans stem from a segmented ancestor. By contrast, no traces of body segmentation are present during neurogenesis of basal molluscs. However, a tetraneurous condition (i.e. one pair of ventral and one pair of lateral nerve cords), as is typical for Mollusca, and a serotonergic larval apical organ that matches the complexity of polyplacophoran apical organs, were found in larval entoprocts, thus strongly supporting a mollusc-entoproct clade. Within the Lophophorata (Ectoprocta + Phoronida + Brachiopoda), data on nervous system development for any of the 3 lophophorate phyla are as of yet too scarce for profound phylogenetic inferences. Taking into account the most recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and developmental neurobiology, a scenario emerges that proposes a clade comprising Sipuncula + Annelida (including Echiura) on the one hand and a monophyletic assemblage of Entoprocta + Mollusca on the other.
Neglect, 8, 203–217.
Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., Roisman, G. I., Obradovic, J., Long, J. D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Resources and resilience in the transition to adulthood: Continuity and change. Development and Psychopathology
Meadow, R. (ed.): ABC of child abuse. BMJ Publishing Group, Bristol, 1997.
Jones, D. P. H.: Child abuse and neglect. In: Gelder, M., Lopez-Ibor, J., Andreasen, N. (eds.): The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry
While Béla Bartók's Selbstbiographie of 1921 provides some insight into his musical training in Pozsony, music historians looking for a broader understanding of the rich musical life that helped shape Bartók must also consider autobiographical statements made by his contemporaries. Fortunately, excellent opportunities present themselves in the writings of the two musicians who preceded Bartók as the organist for the Pozsony Gymnasium's Sunday Mass: Franz Schmidt's Autobiographische Skizze, which he completed around 1915, and Ernő Dohnányi's Memoirs, which he read over Hungarian Radio on January 30, 1944. This article examines the three autobiographical statements to provide a more accurate representation of the richness of Pozsony's musical life at the end of the nineteenth century, and a more complete portrayal of the musical and cultural influences under which Bartók thrived in Pozsony.
Authors:Abdul Waheed Khan, Zeeshan Nasim, Fazli Zahir, Shahid Ali, Abid Ali, Aqib Iqbal, and Iqbal Munir
Diagnostically untypeable subtypes contribute a considerable percent of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes in Pakistan. In the present study, chronically infected HCV patients with known viremia were subjected to HCV genotyping. Among the total retrieved samples, 92.7% (64/69) were found typeable while 7.24% (5/69) were diagnostically untypeable. In conclusion, the presence of large number of untypeable HCV subtypes emphasizes the need of an updated type-specific genotyping assay and consideration of primers for proportionally rare subtypes to minimize the number of untypeable HCV subtypes.
Studies of representative samples of submissions to scientific journals show statistically significant associations between referees' recommendations. These associations are moderately large given the multidimensional and unstable character of scientists' evaluations of papers, and composites of referees' recommendations can significantly aid editors in selecting manuscripts for publication, especially when there is great variability in the quality of submissions and acceptance rates are low. Assessments of the value of peer-review procedures in journal manuscript evaluation should take into account features of the entire scholarly communications system present in a field.
The citation rates of scientific papers, long used by numerous sociologists of science to measure the influence of individual scientists and the diffusion of knowledge, are shown to be partly affected by the various structural characteristics of these papers. Based on an analysis of 221 scientific papers in three cocitation clusters, between 15 and 35 percent of the variation in citation rates is found to be a function of those papers' textual and nontextual characteristics. The citation rates of papers in the Burkitts-Lymphoma and Heavy Quark Potential clusters are shown to be heavily dependent on abstract characteristics such as readability and number of uncommon words. The citation rates of DNA cluster papers are observed to be significantly affected by both the number of references and figures found in teh body of those papers. Of particular note is the fact that while the readability of abstracts is shown to decrease the citation rates of Burkitts-Lymphoma papers, the opposite is true of Heavy Quark Potential papers.
A férfi emlőrák előfordulását, kockázati tényezőit, valamint a pszichológiai sajátosságok etiológiai szerepét övező információhiány mellett, az érintettek tájékozódását, gondozását és a betegséggel való megküzdésüket hamis hiedelmek is nehezítik. A szakirodalmi adatok áttekintését a nemi szerep szocializációjának rövid jellemzésével egészítettük ki, abban a meggyőződésben, hogy az interiorizált maszkulin sztereotípiák figyelembe vétele elengedhetetlen a betegek adekvát pszichés támogatásának tervezésében.