Dogs have recently become an important model species for comparative social and cognitive neuroscience. Brain template-related label maps are essential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, to localize neural responses. In this study, we present a detailed, individual-based, T1-weighted MRI-based brain label map used in dog neuroimaging analysis.
A typical, medium-headed dog (a 7.5-year-old male Golden Retriever) was selected from a cohort of 22 dogs, based on brain morphology (shape, size, and gyral pattern), to serve as the template for a label map.
Eighty-six 3-dimensional labels were created to highlight the main cortical (cerebral gyri on the lateral and medial side) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus) structures of the prosencephalon and diencephalon, and further main parts of brainstem (mesencephalon and rhombencephalon).
Importantly, this label map is (a) considerably more detailed than any available dog brain template; (b) it is easy to use with freeware and commercial neuroimaging software for MRI and fMRI analysis; and (c) it can be registered to other existing templates, including a recent average-based dog brain template. Using the coordinate system and label map proposed here can enhance precision and standard localization during future canine neuroimaging studies.
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. K. Wiech M
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful clinical and research tool that, in the past two decades, has provided a great amount of novel data on the pathophysiology and functional consequences of human epilepsy. PET studies revealed cortical and subcortical brain dysfunction of a widespread brain circuitry, providing an unprecedented insight in the complex functional abnormalities of the epileptic brain. Correlation of metabolic and neuroreceptor PET abnormalities with electro-clinical variables helped identify parts of this circuitry, some of which are directly related to primary epileptogenesis, while others, adjacent to or remote from the primary epileptic focus, may be secondary to longstanding epilepsy. PET studies have also provided detailed data on the functional anatomy of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy. PET, along with other neuroimaging modalities, can measure longitudinal changes in brain function attributed to chronic seizures as well as therapeutic interventions. This review demonstrates how development of more specific PET tracers and application of multimodality imaging by combining structural and functional neuroimaging with electrophysiological data can further improve our understanding of human partial epilepsy, and helps more effective application of PET in presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable seizures.
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követő szakaszaiban eltérő a hallási és nyelvi környezetre mutatott érzékenység.A
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OFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and right DLPFC, which was documented in nicotine addicts in most literature ( Almeida et al., 2008 ; X. Zhang, Salmeron et al., 2011 ). Neuroimaging studies showed the OFC, ACC, and DLPFC regulate the limbic
collection took place between the beginning of 2010 and the summer of 2012, and neuroimaging data from the participants included in this study using different analytical approaches have been previously reported ( Albein-Urios et al., 2014 ; Contreras