Hungarian is a language with distinctive vowel quantity, but it seems that quantity discrimination in acoustic and perceptual terms is less robust for high vowels than for low ones. In this paper, we argue that the unstable behaviour of high vowels could refer to a sound change from below in Labov’s terminology. Due to our results, quantity loss was observed both for high and partly also for mid vowels, especially in unstressed position. The extent of quantity neutralisation showed an interaction with speech style, linguistic attitude, and partly also social status, but not with gender, age-dependent occupation or regional affiliation.
variável [Vowel harmony, a variable rule]. Doctoral dissertation . Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro .
Bisol , Leda . 2003 . A neutralização das átonas [Unstressed vowel neutralization] . Revista Letras. Curitiba 6 . 273 – 283 .
, V. , Deckers , J. , & Delvaux , B.
2000 . Estimation of soil weathering stage and acid neutralizing capacity in a toposequence Luvisol–Cambisol on loess under deciduous forest in Belgium . European Journal of
For the preservation of environment from radioactive contamination, one of the properties necessary for solidified radioactive wastes is resistance to the release of radionuclides due to leaching by ground water after land disposal. In order to seek the optimum solidifying formulation for cement solidified boric acid concentrate from pressurized water reactor, a variety of specimens were prepared, varying the content of neutralizing agents and neutralization methods. For the leaching measurements, the ANS 16.1 Standard Leach Test was carried out for the specimens which had been mixed with small concentration of137Cs to estimate the leachability index. According to our investigation, the optimum contents of neutralizing agents for neutralization of boric acid radioactive waste were determined in view of resistance ability to leaching. Eventually the leachability indices have turned out to be 5.807.91 depending on the formulations.
.: Neutralization of sublines of a mouse leukemia virus with murine antibody, as measured by the spleen focus assay. Cancer Res 27 , 88-94 (1967).
Neutralization of sublines of a mouse leukemia virus with murine antibody, as measured by
At the treatment of HLLW (high-level liquid radioactive waste) by oxalate precipitation, the filtrate is occured as a waste. But various elements including Cs and Sr are contained in the oxalate filtrate. It is very important, therefore, to separate from each other in a viewpoint of ultimate isolation of heat generating nuclides such as Cs and Sr from HLLW. In this study, the simulated oxalate filtrate, consisted of five elements (Cs, Sr, Ru, Fe and Mo) and organics (oxalic acid and ascorbic acid), was prepared, from which the separation of Cs and Sr was carried out by neutralization with NaOH. As a result, the simulated solution could be divided into Cs, Sr and Ru containing groups with pH. Sr was readily precipitated as forms of Sr(C2O4)·nH2O at pH 3. Iron and ruthenium were also co-precipitated around pH 8, and Cs and Mo remained in the resulting solution.
Authors:J. Gbadago, A. Faanhof, C. Schandorf and E. Darko
The effectiveness of the neutralization process on heavy metals precipitated in sludge has been evaluated using instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) facilities at the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa). The elemental concentrations
of Th, Fe, Ag, Co, Cr, As, Au and K were reduced after the neutralization process with the exception of Mn and Sn which appeared
to be enhanced by the neutralization process. Even though the neutralization process was targeted at the basic ferric arsenate
compound, it was found to be effective in reducing other elemental concentrations. The variations in the geochemical compositions
of the sulphidic ores during treatment at various stages also showed that physical processing stages do not significantly
alter the elemental concentrations in the feed materials, however, the chemically active processing stages do. Also, the enhancement
of the elements at the chemical stages depends on total quality control, where the application was not very repeatable the
pattern of variation of elements at some stages was found to be irregular irrespective of the ore grade. The elements; Sn,
Fe, Th, K, Au, Ag, As, Cr, and Co were enhanced in almost all the chemically active stages. Au was much more enhanced during
flotation and bio-oxidation processes. Correlation analysis performed to determine the distribution patterns show that Fe,
As, Ag and Co are geochemically associated and might be enriched simultaneously.
In the framework of a recently suggested recombination model it is shown that an increase of the initial ion concentration caused by higher irradiation doses leads to an increase of the fraction of ions recombining in the volume. This effect is represented for two different rate functions R/t/ assumed to describe the recombination rate for single ion pairs. Finally consequences of the volume recombination effect on the product yield of a competitive ion-scavenger reaction and for the determination of the real survival probability of the isolated ion pairs are discussed.