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. Lamirel and Créhange ( 1994 ) firstly introduced the dynamic and unsupervised cooperation between clustering models in the context of information retrieval. This new approach has been originally used for analyzing the relevance of user's queries regarding

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Using flexible heat flux sensors mounted on the lateral and bottom of outside reactor wall, a new approach is developed for isothermal calorimetric technique to overcome the disadvantages of heat flow calorimetric methods. Although the proposed system needs a calibration procedure before or after the reaction completion to evaluate the lateral heat transfer area, the measurement is versatile and totally independent of the reaction media, jacket fluid, and the variations of heat transfer coefficient. Knowledge of the variations of the heat transfer coefficient is essential for the effective control and scale up of a reactor and can be inferred by the new method during the reaction. The stirrer power and the heat loss can be determined easily as well. No pre-calibration is needed for the sensors and no heating element is applied inside the reactor for temperature control. Experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the new proposed technique. With the help of a heater, the heat generated in the reactor is measured at various levels of power input. The predicted heater power inputs are in good agreement with the corresponding heat inputs. The relative detection limit in the range of 0.8–1 W L−1 is expected for this technique. Using the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride, the heat of reaction at 25°C is determined, which is within the range reported in the literatures. The capability of the system to deal with the variations in the overall heat transfer coefficient is also demonstrated using a simulated reaction.

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the number of DHF cases [5–7] , only few studies have focused on detecting the epidemic of DHF. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a new approach to detect the epidemic of DHF in Chonburi by combining seasonal autoregressive integrated moving

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The new expression τ3ph −1=g(ω) (BN + BUE−Θ/αT)Tm is proposed for the three-phonon scattering relaxation rate, considering contributions due to three-phonon normal and umklapp processes, which give a new approach to the lattice thermal conductivity. With use of the above expression, the lattice thermal conductivity of Ge has been calculated in the entire temperature range 2–1000 K: good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated values of the phonon conductivity in the entire temperature range of investigation. Analytical expressions are also obtained to calculate an approximate value of the lattice thermal conductivity. The role of four-phonon processes is also included in the present study.

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Zhou S. P. , On monotone rational approximation: a new approach, Analysis , 19 (1999), 391–395. MR 2000k :41020 Zhou S. P. On monotone rational approximation: a new

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The quantitative interpretation of X-ray fluorescence /XRF/ data is often difficult because of matrix effects. The intensity of fluorescence measurement for a given element is not only dependent on the concentration of the element, but also on the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for both excitation and fluorescent radiation. In this paper, a new approach for the determination of absorption and transmission correction factors is described.

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This paper introduces a new approach to detecting scientists’ field mobility by focusing on an author’s self-citation network, and the co-authorships and keywords in self-citing articles. Contrary to much previous literature on self-citations, we will show that author’s self-citation patterns reveal important information on the development and emergence of new research topics over time. More specifically, we will discuss self-citations as a means to detect scientists’ field mobility. We introduce a network based definition of field mobility, using the Optimal Percolation Method (Lambiotte & Ausloos, 2005; 2006). The results of the study can be extended to selfcitation networks of groups of authors and, generally also for other types of networks.

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Determination and estimation of organic sulphur, nitrogen, phosphor and halides in harmful chemical waste and estimation of emission of SO2, NOX, HCI, HBr or HI during incineration are the primary task of risk assessment. In our paper we present a new analytical approach for determination of bromine in a heterogeneous sample. The method applied is based on combustion of chemical waste under oxygen atmosphere (pressure 20 bars) and transformation to corresponding anions. These anions can be measured by ion chromatography. Using this method all hetero atoms can be transformed to corresponding anions (except for oxygen) and can be measured by ion chromatography. In this paper we report of determination of bromine content of chemical waste. During the combustion of organobromine compounds different types of inorganic bromine are formed. All types of bromine must be converted to Br. To fulfil it the above, ascorbic acid solution was used for absorbing and transforming all types bromine compounds to Br. We will discuss all the details about this new approach and give all the parameters to get efficient conversion from organic bromine to bromide anions.

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The point of departure of this paper is that it is both timely and imperative to renew the traditional systemic approach to historical linguistics primarily focusing on Ancient Hungarian and Old Hungarian and supplement it with usage-centred research based on Middle Hungarian sources (like records of evidence in witchcraft trials). One possible way of doing that is offered by historical (socio)pragmatics, a line of study little known at present within Hungarian linguistics. Although a systematic application of (synchronically tried-and-true, all but classical) pragmatic theories and methods to historical material may come up against unforeseeable or even unresolvable difficulties, such „experimentation” is a promising enterprise: the pragmatic point of view and the theories built on it may provide historical investigations with a framework that can not only be expected to yield new conclusions but also to throw new light upon familiar facts of language history. The title of this paper raises two questions: 1. Is a new approach to the study of the history of Hungarian needed at all? and 2. What is historical sociopragmatics? In what follows, I will try to answer both questions in that order.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Comeau, L. Nodichao, J. Collin, M. Baum, J. Samsatly, D. Hamidou, F. Langevin, A. Laroche, and E. Picard

Literature confirms that using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an osmotic agent to imitate water shortage was not so easy in practice, due to PEG toxicity effects and frequent contaminations. Two new approaches were developed to alleviate those problems, one using a raft covered with a membrane to prevent PEG entry in roots, and one using solidified PEG media. The raft trials were done on corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, Agrotricum; those in solid media, with corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, barley, sorghum and pearl millet. Different species respond differently to PEG-induced osmotic stress. In our trials, the most sensitive cereal was corn, and this finding correlates with the lower osmotic pressure of the sap (a constitutive trait in corn seedlings). Corn responded to osmotic stress by a very poor rate of elongation of the coleoptile, especially when the highest stress (32% PEG) was used. This behavior was also observed in the field in dry years, for example in the Sahel area. Compared to this sensitive cereal species, all other cereals tested were more resistant. Hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, triticale, and Agrotricum kept capacity to elongate roots when submitted to a high osmotic stress, but the higher stress reduced root length considerably. Barley kept rooting ability like other cereals, but was able to develop more aerial biomass, seminal roots, and ramifications. Barley root hair was also longer and covered a higher proportion of the root. Those adaptive features likely explain part of the good adaptation of barley to dry Mediterranean areas. Preliminary results on solid media also showed relationships between drought resistance and the osmoresistance response, at least when comparing species. Roots of species adapted to hot climate, like pearl millet and sorghum, had few seminal roots but displayed a strong gravitropism under osmotic stress. The ease of use of solidified PEG media shows promise for future larger scale trials. Applications of solidified PEG media for research beyond cereal crops is envisioned.

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