The first record of species Penthalodes ovalis (Dugès, 1834) in agricultural habitat is presented in this paper. This is also the first record of the occurrence and damages on grown plants. The variability of the morphology and new data on the biology are given as well.
Morgan (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newpest of the Bulgarian greenhouses. In: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “50 years University of Forestry”, 1–2 April 2003, Sofia, 122–125.
The horse-chestnut leafminer is a new pest which was established in North-West Hungary ca. 10 years prior to these investigations. Due to the very limited time, there are relatively few studies on the parasitoid community of the moth and its connection with the leafminer host. Authors used twig-isolators to find out which larval/pupal instars are mostly parasitized and by which chalcidoid species. They also made an attempt to calculate density curves of different developmental stages of the moth and to compare them with flight curves of the parasitoids. Experiences indicated that 4-week-old larval (pupal) instars were parasitized to the highest degree. The most frequent parasitoids were
. Statements about a poor synchronization between moth and parasitoids were confirmed but possibility of a shift in swarming times on location was suggested. Different methods to calculate rate of parasitism were compared and evaluated.
Authors:M. Jolánkai, Á. Tarnawa, K. Kassai, H. Nyárai and Zs. Szentpétery
Agriculture is highly affected by climate change. Climate change impacts may influence almost all fields of agricultural activities; production efficiency, quantitative and qualitative deterioration of crop yields produced for alimentary purposes, and determine post-harvest manifestation of agricultural products inducing hazard in the field of food safety, transport, storage and distribution. Soil-climatic conditions, amount and distribution of precipitation, anomalies and extremities of temperature as well as various manifestation of air movement from stand still to storms are some of the main factors that may influence agriculture. Pollution has been considered solely as the presence of unfavourable alien matter in the environment, but in reality pollution is far more than that. Agri-environmental pollution is largely independent of mankind, since many pollution or degradation processes may begin with no direct relationship to human activities. Soil degradation, or irreversible damage to natural ecosystems by climatic factors (drought, flood, water logging, salinity) are the most frequent consequences. Biological pollution, like weed infestation, epidemics and gradations, pollen allergy, the poisonous effect of mycotoxins on farm animals and humans, new pests and diseases, the emission of greenhouse gases, and biological factors which cause quality deterioration represent an increasing pressure on agri-environment. This paper is intended to give an overview of some research activities and their results in relation with climatic aspects of agri-environmental pollution in Hungary.
Authors:F. Tóth, L. Horváth, J. Komáromi, J. Kiss and E. Széll
The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a new pest of corn in Europe. Future management may include the use of natural enemies. Our study focused on the determination of density and species composition of spiders in corn fields, as well as in the adjacent corn field margins, during the peak flight period of WCR adults. An additional objective was to test different sampling methods, used for spider collecting, in corn fields and in adjacent corn field margins. The field study was conducted in July and August, 1999, in experimental corn plots, as well as in the adjacent field margins, owned by the Cereal Research Institute, Szeged, in Southern Hungary. Spiders were collected by individual plant search and by sweep nets. Number of spiders /m2 was significantly higher, whereas /m3 was significantly lower in the corn plots compared to the adjacent field margins. Remnants of WCR adults were found in theridiid [Theridion impressum L. Koch, T. pictum (Walckenaer), Enoplognatha latimana Hippa and Oksala] and agelenid (Agelena sp.) webs. We observed that individuals of both families were able to kill 1-5 adult beetles within 90 minutes.
Wheat cultivation is of great significance in North-western plains of India and the crop was hitherto considered as almost free from serious insect attack. Recently, Pink stem borer (PSB), Sesamia inferens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has emerged as a new pest and is likely to pose serious threat to the successful cultivation of wheat in the North-western plains of India under largely adopted rice-wheat cropping system. Because of the paucity of data on the developmental biology of PSB on wheat crop regarding this emerging problem of insect damage, studies were initiated on biology of PSB under field as well as screenhouse conditions during seasons of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. This is the first report on biology of PSB on wheat which indicated that the pest was able to survive well/build up populations on wheat and able to complete its life cycle. It laid eggs either at the base of wheat plant near to soil level or on soil-surface or in the left over stubble of rice plants. Eggs hatched within 7.40±0.08 days and the mean larval duration was 68.52±1.55 days. In the course of development, it passed through 8 larval instars and pupation took place near or within the left over rice stubble. Pupal period was 36.05±0.36 days in male while 37.78±0.17 days in female. The survival of adult moths was 5.31±0.26 days in male while 6.61±0.26 days in female. The mean fecundity was 118.38±11.93 eggs and 89.15 per cent of eggs hatched. The total life cycle took 116.92±2.17 and 119.95±2.05 days in males and females, respectively.
The dynamics, geographical and social characteristics of the settlement of Jews in Pest in the mid-19th century
. The author examines the life and internal social problems of the Jews settled in Pest towards the end of the 18th century. Even before that time Jewish society was not homogeneous, and this was also the case in Pest. The social differences can be seen in the dynamics and geography of the settlement. The first to arrive in Pest were entrepreneurs from Óbuda who had considerable influence in the region, followed by wholesale merchants from Pozsony. The more prosperous entrepreneurs and wholesalers attracted the poorer Jewish strata who did not have the permanent Pest residence permits required for independent business activity (the so-called Toleranz). Although the great majority of the Jews lived in Terézváros (Theresa Town), where individual families lived depended on their financial situation. The more prosperous the new settlers were, the further they lived from the old centre of Terézváros, the core of which was formed by the area around Dob and Király streets. However, it was here that the first synagogues were opened. The denominational records of births and deaths that formed part of the research material show that in the new Pest Jewish society there were also family forms differing from the religious norm. The question arises of how the Jewish community accepted the unmarried mothers and children born out of wedlock. There is proof that the single mothers also had their sons circumcised and all deceased Jewish children were probably buried in the Israelite cemetery. These facts point to acceptance, but the way the entries were made in the records of births and deaths indicates that the community acknowledged only reluctantly the structure of births outside wedlock.