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Wheat-rye 1BL.1RS translocations have been widely used in wheat breeding programs. A 1BL.1RS translocation wheat line, 91S-23, was developed from a 1R monosomic addition of the rye (Secale cereale) inbred line L155 into wheat (Triticum aestivum) MY11. A new commercial wheat cultivar, CN18, which also contained the 1BL.1RS translocation, was derived from the cross MY11 × 91S-23. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the rye centromere was eliminated from the 1BL.1RS chromosomes of CN18 but not from 91S-23. Based on the 1RS source and the centromeric structure of the translocation chromosome, CN18 qualifies as a new wheat cultivar possessing a 1BL.1RS translocation. CN18 displayed high yield performance and resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust, whereas 91S-23 was susceptible to these diseases. The present study provides a new 1RS resource for wheat improvement.

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Wheat kernel morphology is a very important trait for wheat yield improvement. This is the first report of association analysis of kernel morphology traits in wheat breeding lines. In Qinghai, China, the research described here involved genome-wide association analysis in breeding lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat with a mixed linear model to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to kernel morphology. The 8033 effective Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers produced a genetic map of 5901.84 cM with an average density of 1.36 markers/cM. Population structure analysis classified 507 breeding lines into three groups by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked markers. Linkage disequilibrium decay was observed with a map coverage of 2.78 cM. Marker-trait association analysis showed that 15 DArT markers for kernel morphology were detected, located on nine chromosomes, and explained 2.6%–4.0% of the phenotypic variation of kernel area (KA), kernel width (KW), kernel length (KL) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). The marker 1139297 was related to both the KL and KA traits. Only six DArT markers were close to known QTLs. The parent SHW-L1 carried eight favored alleles, while other seven favored alleles were derived from elite common wheat cultivars. These QTLs, identified in elite breeding lines, should help us understand the kernel morphology trait better, and to provide germplasm for breeding new wheat cultivars for Qinghai Province or other regions.

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The interaction effects of phosphorus fertilization, applied at various rates and time intervals, with or without foliar spraying with citrine on the growth and macro- and micronutrient uptake of two new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 94 and Gmiza 10) in a sandy soil were investigated under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University. Superphosphate was used at different rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg P kg−1 soil) and timing: before planting (BP); 1 month after planting (AP) and 50% BP + 50% AP. The results confirmed that phosphorus fertilization and foliar spraying with citrine significantly increased both the straw and grain yield and the nutrient uptake compared with the control. The interaction effect of phosphorus fertilization and foliar spraying with citrine significantly increased Zn and Mn uptake by the straw and grain yield, as well as P and Fe uptake by the straw yield. The addition of 7.5 mg P kg−1 soil (50% BP + 50% AP) gave the highest value of apparent P recovery (APR) when spraying with citrine. APR and P use efficiency (PUE) were markedly decreased at the higher P addition rate, with or without citrine. Treating wheat plants with 7.5 mg P kg−1 soil combined with citrine saved 59% of the P fertilizer, and thus reduced environmental pollution.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Hongxiang M, Jinbao Yao, Miaoping Zhou, Xu Zhang, Lijuan Ren, Giuhong Yu, and Weizhong Lu

Bai, G.H., Zhou, C.F., Qian, C.M., Ge, Y.F. 1989. A study of scab-resistance in new wheat cultivars and advanced lines. Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences 7 :20–22 Ge Y.F. A study of

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Tang , Z.X. , Fu , S.L. , Ren , Z.L. , Zhang , H.Q. , Yang , Z.J. , Yan , B.J. , Zhang , H.Y. 2008 . Production of a new wheat cultivar with a different 1B.1R translocation with resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust . Cereal Res

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. Tang , Z.X. , Fu , S.L. , Ren , Z.L. , Zhang , H.Q. , Yang , Z.J. , Yan , B.J. , Zhang , H.Y. 2008 . Production of a new wheat cultivar with a different 1B.1R translocation with resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust

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