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. Influences of pipe drainage and fertilization on nitrate leaching. Cereal Res. Commun. 35 :237–240. Vrhovec D. Influences of pipe drainage and fertilization on nitrate leaching

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. & Ozenir, A. (1996): Bursa'da tüketilen sucuk, salam, sosis ve past1rmalardaki kal1nt1 nitrat ve nitrit miktarlar1n1n saptanmas1. (Determination of residual nitrate and nitrite contents of dry fermented sausage, salami, sausage and pastirma consumed in

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, 1995 ). NO is supplied by two pathways, the classical l -arginine-nitric oxide synthase pathway, and the later discovered nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway ( Lundberg et al., 2008 ; Weitzberg et al., 2010 ). Dietary nitrate is one of the main

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Abd-El Baki, G. K., Siefritz, F., Man, H. M., Weiner, H., Kaldenhoff, R., Kaiser, W. M. (2000) Nitrate reductase in Zea mays L. under salinity. Plant Cell Environ. 23 , 515

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Abstract  

This paper presents calorimeter measurement for the thermal decomposition of n-propyl nitrate (NPN), isopropyl nitrate (IPN) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). Similar experimental results of triethylene glycol dinitrate (tri-EGDN) and tetraethylene glycol dinitrate (tetra-EGDN) are included for comparison. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) along O-NO2 bond stretch are investigated using the DFT (B3P86, B3PW91 and B3LYP), ab initio Hartree-Fock and PM3 methods. The good coincidence of experimental with theoretical results indicates that initial stage in the thermal decomposition of five nitrates is only unimolecular homolytical dissociation of the O-NO2 bonds and the activation energies of thermolysis by DSC correspond to the energies of O-NO2 bond scission of nitrates.

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Even if plants can contain high levels of nitrate and nitrite, milk and dairy products are not described as sources of these anions. The purpose of this paper was to measure the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in forage, cow blood, and milk.The results show that the nitrate ratio of milk to plasma is very low, suggesting that milk contamination with nitrate is unlikely to occur. This finding also proves the lack of an active transport mechanism to transfer nitrate from blood to milk. The nitrite anion almost disappears from milk through an enzymatic conversion; usually levels of μg l−1 were measured.

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Nitrate accumulation in plants is a natural phenomenon resulting from uptake of nitrate ion in excess of its reduction and subsequent assimilation. The water soluble nitrate content of various carrot and red beet varieties was measured as a function of irrigation and mineral supplement in three years. In the first year, the nitrate content increased in both roots (significant differences were found for three carrot and at three red beet cultivars) following the irrigation. The activity of nitrate-reductase in the leaves was also significantly higher after irrigation in three red beet varieties in 1998. The mineral supplement in most of the carrot varieties increased the nitrate content. In the third year, the impact of water supply showed various tendencies in nitrate accumulation in both vegetables. On the basis of results for three years, the conclusion was that the seasonal and varietal differences were also remarkable.

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Vegetables are the major source of dietary nitrate, with wide variations in nitrate content. The presence of nitrate in vegetables is often associated with harmful effects on human health, i.e. with toxic effects of methaemoglobinaemia and the possibility of causing an endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. However, it is also associated with beneficial health effects, since nitrate represent an important alternative pathway to bioactive NO and its important physiological roles in vascular and immune function. In this review the concentrations of nitrate in different vegetables from different countries are given. Furthermore, the reasons for the different contents of nitrate in vegetables, the daily intakes and comparisons to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, legislation, metabolism and toxicology of nitrate are described as well as harmful and beneficial effects of nitrate on human health.

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Interaction of salinity, nitrate, light, and seed weight on the germination of Crithmum maritimum was investigated. Seeds of three size categories were germinated at 0–200 mM NaCl with either 0, 5 or 20 mM KNO 3 . Experiments were done under darkness, white light, or red light. Regardless of seed weight, germination was maximal in distilled water. Under salinity, the smallest seeds showed the highest germination percentage. Salt impact was amplified by darkness, but was mitigated by nitrate supply, red light and their combination. At the same PPFD, germination of T2 seeds was higher, when exposed to red light than under white light, suggesting that germination was more influenced by the light type than by the PPFD. As a whole, not only salinity, nutrient availability, seed weight, and light, but also their interaction may control the germination of this halophyte.

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AOAC (2000): Nitrate in baby foods. Spectrophotometric method; Official Method No. 993.03 Nitrate in baby foods 2000

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