Authors:F. Vučajnk, S. Trdan, G. Leskošek, I.J. Košir, A. Sreš, D. Kocjan Ačko, and M. Vidrih
In 2014 and 2015, we studied the effect of fungicide spraying with 11 different nozzles on the quality and quantity of head and leaf fungicide deposit, the percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence, FHB index, the DON content, yield and grain quality parameters. The best quality and quantity of fungicide deposit on the front and rear head sides was achieved with the TeeJet Turbo FloodJet TF VP2 nozzle (FLOOD) and the Albuz AVI-TWIN 110-03 nozzle (AVI). In comparison with the majority of treatments, the FHB incidence and the FHB index was the highest on the unsprayed control. The FHB index was higher using the Lechler IDK 120-03 nozzle (IDK) than with the other nozzle types. In all the treatments, the DON content in the grain was less than 50 μg/kg. At this very low level of infection this is not surprising. The grain yield was the smallest on the unsprayed control. Better fungicide coverage of wheat heads with the FLOOD and AVI nozzles did not result in a statistically higher yield or better grain quality parameters. Negative correlations were confirmed between yield and variables as DON content, FHB incidence and FHB index and also between falling number and variables as fungicide coverage, FHB incidence and FHB index. Positive correlations were determined between DON content and FHB incidence, between hectolitre weight and variables as spray deposit and coverage and between protein content and variables as spray deposit and coverage.
Authors:Szabolcs Lechoczki-Krsjak, Beáta Tóth, Csaba Kótai, Imre Martonosi, László Farády, László Kondrák, Ágnes Szabó-Hevér, and Ákos Mesterházy
Four nozzle types were tested on large scale trials with 2500 m
plot size. The AIC TeeJet, the TeeJet XR, the Turbo FloodJet and the Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles were tested in 2006 and 2007. 250 l/ha spray amount was used for all nozzles at 7–8 km/hr speed. Nine fungicides generally used to control FHB were tested. Across nine fungicides the mean reduction in symptoms was 60 % for both AIC TeeJet and XR TeeJet nozzles, but the more effective fungicides performed better with the XR TeeJet nozzle. The Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles reduced the symptoms by 70 % and the Turbo FloodJet nozzle by 80 %. Among the fungicides the Prosaro 1 l/ha was the most effective. The coverage was controlled by water sensitive paper stripes and UV sensitive color mixed into the spray. Data show better uniformity by paper stripes, the UV pictures show that the all-side protection by the Turbo FloodJet nozzle is not perfect, the coverage is less than anticipated. Therefore, further work is necessary for improve the coverage being necessary to an even more effective control. However, the existing improvements allow 80 % or higher reduction with the best fungicides giving a chance for a better protection. Small plot tests with the same fungicides gave highly similar results achieved with the large-scale farm application. Farm efficacy could be forecasted with r = 0.90 correlation based on small plot hand sprayed tests.
Authors:Julian Schülein, Ingo Minrath, Rainer Pommersheim, and Holger Löwe
To synthesize nickel(0) nanoparticles by wet chemical reduction using hydrazine with an average size distribution below 100 nm, two different reactor concepts were developed. With a cone channel nozzle, the reactant solutions were sprayed into a batch for further processing and reduction at elevated temperatures. Another concept uses a micro-coaxial injection mixer connected to a heated tube to establish a fully continuously operating reactor. To shorten the time for reduction of the nickel, salt temperatures up to 180 °C are applied. To avoid uncontrolled residence time, the whole system was pressurized up to 80 bar. Approximately 80 L reactant solution, i.e., 1 kg nickel(0) nanoparticles, could be processed within 30 h.
Authors:Olena Yakymchuk, Dmytro Yakymchuk, Nataliia Bilei-Ruban, Iryna Nosova, Serhiy Horiashchenko, Kostyantyn Horiashchenko, Tetyana Kisil, and Viacheslav Tuz
following tasks were set: developing equipment for hydro-jet forming of headwear hats; developing a movement and orientation mechanism of jet forming nozzle; conducting experimental research of headwear details forming of semi-spherical shape; conducting
Authors:Long Han, Deepak Doraiswamy, and Rakesh K. Gupta
with polymer solutions of low viscosity. An opposed nozzle device [ 28 ] has been used for “apparent extensional viscosity” measurements of polymer solutions but has inherent problems related to non-homogeneity of the flow and data analysis [ 23