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Abstract  

The effects of nucleating agents such as dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) (a derivative of sorbitol), pine crystal 1500, sodium and potassium benzoates in commercial grade isotactic polypropylene iPP are studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene to the alpha phase have been analyzed using Avrami's model. Results indicate that dibenzylidene sorbitol and pine crystal are very effective in increasing the crystallization temperature of the polymer and number of nuclei formed during crystallization.

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Abstract  

Nucleation of crystallizable polymers is quantified through an efficiency scale obtained and calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This scale, defined in self-nucleation experiments, is a simple, convenient and reliable calorimetric efficiency scale. Typical nucleating agents for isotactic polypropylene are evaluated; they rate at best at 60 to=70% on this efficiency scale.

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Abstract  

The effect of four nucleating agents on the crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The nucleating agents are: carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanotubes (CNT), lithium benzoate and dimethyl-benzylidene sorbitol. Avramișs model is used to analyze the isothermal crystallization kinetics of iPP. Based on the increase in crystallization temperature (T c) and the decrease in half-life time (τ½) for crystallization, the most efficient nucleating agents are the CNF and CNT, at concentrations as low as 0.001 mass%. Sorbitol and lithium benzoate show to be less efficient, while the sorbitol needs to be present at concentrations above 0.05 mass% to even act as nucleating agent.

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Introduction In order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), α- and β-nucleating agents are generally used for iPP crystallization. It is found that the addition of α-nucleating

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inorganic particle fillers [ 1 – 5 ] and nucleating agents [ 6 – 22 ] into PP is one of the most common and simple methods to improve the mechanical properties and accelerate the crystallization rate of PP, respectively. In general, the nucleating

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-modification, and smectic phase) [ 1 – 4 ]. The α-modification is the most stable and commonly observed, and the β-modification is a metastable crystalline phase that is obtained only under special crystallization conditions or by adding selective β-nucleating agent

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The effect of talc as an artificial nucleating agent in different concentrations on the crystallization of polypropylene (PP) has been studied. It is considered that the induction time should be taken into account in the Avrami evaluation of isothermal crystallization. From a study of nucleated PP samples prepared in different ways, it has been proved that the nucleating effect of talc slightly decreases with increasing time spent by the sample in the state of the polymer melt. It has been shown that crystallization of non-nucleated polypropylene strongly depends on the material of the sample pan. It has been established that dilatometry cannot be used to study the isothermal crystallization of nucleated polypropylene, since microcracks appear in the sample, partly compensating the volume decrease due to the crystallization process.

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Abstract  

The effects of non-isothermal and isothermal crystallization on the formation of α- and β-phase in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) with different content of β-nucleating agent are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). On non-isothermal crystallization, the content of β-phase and regularity of its crystals are depended on both cooling rate and the content of β-nucleating agent. The faster cooling rate is, the lower of melting peak temperature (Tmp) and crystallization peak temperature (Tcp) of α- and β-phase are. The enthalpy of fusion (∆H) of β-phase increases with cooling rate in a certain range for the sample with 0.1 wt% β-nucleating agent (G1) and decreases for that with 0.3 wt% β-nucleating agent (G3). On isothermal crystallization, the enthalpy of fusion of β-phase in G1 is higher than in G3 which is related to the efficiency of nucleation in different concentration of nucleating center in two samples.

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