Authors:Lisa Marie Dillon and Michelle Provenzano Beechler
Imamoğlu , E. O. , Wendorf , C. A. , Weisfeld , C. C. , Weisfeld , G. E. , Lucas , T. W. , Parkhill , M. R. & Shen , J. Cultural differences in the impact of numberofchildren on marital satisfaction . (Unpublished manuscript
Authors:M. Freitas, I. Dionísio, D. Beasley, S. Almeida, H. Dung, C. Repolho, A. Pacheco, A. Caseiro, C. Pio and C. Alves
The number of children reporting rhinitis by month is compared with air pollutant concentrations in Lisbon, where they live
and attend school. INAA, ionic exchange chromatography and data accessed through the internet were statistically processed
with the children rhinitis data. Association between rhinitis and atmospheric variables are processed using Spearman non-parametric
statistics and principal component analysis. It is pointed out that traffic, soil resuspension from traffic, meteorological
conditions, and industry air pollutants contribute to respiratory trends. Ir (Pt group), a vehicle catalyst, may have some
The authors investigated the poverty of children by means of a sample covering only the poorest third of the population. Their starting point was that children have special needs that differ from those of adults, and that the degree of satisfaction of those needs determines to a large extent the quality of their life and their future life chances. The results show that within the poor population the children in the most disadvantaged situation are those who live in Budapest, who live in families without an active earner, and the children on of the Roma. The difference between the poverty of children living in the capital and in villages is significant despite the fact that on the national level the income level of the capital is higher than in the villages. Two factors that were expected to be significantly influencing need satisfaction, namely the age of the children and the number of children in the household do not seem to differentiate significantly the poor population. The majority of poor households with children get some social benefits but the level of the benefits is too low to significantly improve the situation.
Radamos (Radmožanci) is a village with a population of 254, inhabited by Hungarians of Roman Catholic religion, in the territory of present-day Slovenia bordering on Hungary. József Füle, a local inhabitant, experienced the apparition of Mary alone on June 15, 1947. The news spread immediately and in the summer of 1947 great numbers of people from the surrounding Hungarian, Croatian and Slovenian villages came regularly to visit the tree, and the Virgin Mary appeared to many of them, including a large number of children. The communist authorities of Yugoslavia at that time took a dim view of spontaneously organised pilgrimages with religious content: they imprisoned a number of people. The principal goal of the article, in addition to presenting the events of 1947, is to analyse the process whereby the apparitions live on in individual and collective memory, and the forms of manifestation found today, more than half a century after the apparitions. The authors also wish to interpret the process in which the pilgrimage site was transformed from the mid-1990s.
Authors:Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári and Gy. Kasza
Salmonellosis is a widely known infectious disease in Hungary that played dominant role between 1960 and 1996 and remained one of the top food-borne illnesses to these days with an estimated total number of 96 048 cases (2019). Beside direct costs of treatment, indirect costs are also significant on the level of population. Among indirect costs, consumer well-being losses are difficult to be estimated. For this purpose, the willingness to pay (WTP) method is used most frequently that measures the cost an individual would undertake to avoid a certain harm. For the well-being loss estimation, the data of National Food Chain Safety Authority's annual consumer survey was used, in which 323 respondents gave evaluable answer to the open-ended WTP question. Results indicate that an average respondent would pay 18.6 EUR to avoid salmonellosis. Main factors affecting WTP were size of family and number of children. The numbers indicate that the consumer well-being loss could be about 1 786 060 EUR annually, resulting from the multiplication of the estimated number of annual salmonellosis cases and the average WTP value. It can be concluded that consumer well-being losses alone would call for further interventions in Salmonella eradication, not to mention other – more direct – cost elements.
Authors:Viktória Kovács, Zs Fajcsák, A. Gábor and É. Martos
We determined the effect of a school-based exercise training (ET) without dietary intervention, on body composition, fitness and cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children. Subjects were 51 overweight/obese 6.5- to 12.5-year-old children (23 boys, 28 girls; BMI 25.6±4.3 kg/m
), of whom 48 completed the program. Participants were enrolled in a 15-week aerobic training (three 60-minute sessions/week). Working heart rate was between 120–185 beats/minute. Participation rate was 87%. BMI, waist circumference, body composition (bioimpedance), aerobic capacity (treadmill), blood pressure, lipids and insulin sensitivity (HOMA) were assessed. Waist circumference (85.9±12.4 vs. 80.9±10.2 cm), muscle mass (32.4±6.2 vs. 33.7±6.1 kg), maximal oxygen consumption (37.0±3.9 vs. 42.6±11.2 ml/kg per minute), systolic blood pressure (113.3±11.2 vs. 106.7±11.6 mmHg) and LDL cholesterol (2.4±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.6 mM/l) improved significantly. Number of children with abdominal obesity (29 vs. 20), hypertension (10 vs. 5) and elevated triglyceride (18 vs. 14) also declined significantly over time. We concluded that as a result of high attendance and appropriate training program, cardiovascular fitness and abdominal obesity improved in overweight/obese children along with the improvement in metabolic risk factor profile.
Both life history theory and demographic transition theory predict that fertility responds to changes in mortality, but there have been relatively few tests which identify links between mortality perceptions and fertility preferences at the individual level. This paper provides an individual-level investigation of the relationship between mortality and fertility, by testing whether mortality priming results in an increase in fertility preferences. Data were collected via an internet-based experiment of students at the London School of Economics (LSE), who were randomly allocated between two questionnaires. The treatment questionnaire asked a set of mortality priming questions and then collected information on fertility preferences and attitudes towards the costs and benefits of children. The control questionnaire recorded information on fertility preferences without prior mortality priming. The results suggest that mortality priming resulted in higher ideal number of children for males, but not for females. There were no significant differences in the attitudes towards the costs and benefits of children for either sex, though the raw data suggest a slight shift towards viewing children as less costly after mortality-priming, particularly for men. This paper therefore argues that the reaction of fertility to mortality may be at least partly mediated by a direct psychological link between mortality perceptions and reproductive behaviour.
The burdens of caring and curing professions are increased in the female workforce by duties of child-rearing and serving a family as well.
the objective of our research was to study and compare future and present family and career plans of students, respectively active professionals (nurses and female doctors), related to their physical and mental health and conflicts.
our cross-section research was carried out among female nursing college students (N = 226), female medical students (N = 117), and among professional nurses and female doctors in hospitals (N = 409).
students consider parallel their future family and workplace roles. The number of children planned is the same as in the general population, but female medical students would like to have more children than nursing students. Professional nurses and female doctors estimate high both the family and workplace roles. Role conflicts are interrelating with their career and life satisfaction, health condition, and the prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms. Their roles as a social model in health promotion are rather questionable, for their insufficient health and risk behaviours.
we can state that there is a considerable tension and contradiction in planned and actual roles of future and present female workforce of Hungary's health care system. In many cases they are unable to fulfil requirements based on their social engagement. Relevant handicaps of nursing college students and female professional nurses are more prevalent, therefore we propose further analytic and comparative research in the future.
Based on a face-to-face survey of 312 scientists from government research institutes and state universities in two Philippine
locations — Los Baños, Laguna and Muñoz, Nueva Ecija — we examine how graduate training and digital factors shape the professional
network of scientists at the “Global South.” Results suggest that scientists prefer face-to-face interaction; there is no
compelling evidence that digitally-mediated interaction will replace meaningful face-to-face interaction. What is evident
is that among none face-to-face modes of communication a reordering maybe in progress.
The effect of digital factors — expressed through advance hardware-software-user interaction skills — lies on network features pertaining to size, proportion of male and of core-based alters, and locational diversity. International
graduate training and ascribed factors (gender and number of children) also configure the professional network of scientists — actors traditionally viewed as the epitome of rationality and objectivity. We argue that these factors influence knowledge production through a system of patronage and a culture that celebrates patrifocality. We forward the hypothesis that knowledge production at the “Global South” closely fits Callon’s  extended translation model of science.