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4–10 éves magyar gyermekek tápanyagbeviteli és tápláltsági állapotának felmérése

Nutrient intake and nutritional status of 4–10-year-old Hungarian children

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Diána Sárga
,
Lajos Biró
,
Bernadett Kiss-Tóth
, and
Márta Veresné Bálint

, Jewell J, et al. Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations. Nutr Res Rev. 2019; 32: 38–69. 24

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Poličnik
,
D. Pokorn
,
D. Kulnik
,
D. Mičetić-Turk
, and
C. Hlastan-Ribič

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy and dietary intake of pre-school children (PSC) in Central Slovenia.A total of 129 PSC, average age 4.2 years, were included. The intake was assessed with the use of three-day weighed food records.The average daily energy intake of PSC was 5881.0±1394.2 kJ (1405.2 kcal). The average estimated daily intakes of macronutrients were: protein 13.9%E, fats 28.8%E and carbohydrates 57.1%E. The average daily intake of vitamins were: A 0.2±0.2 mg, E 11.5±3.8 mg, B1 0.9±1.0 mg, B2 1.0±0.2 mg, B6 1.2±0.4 mg, D 1.1±0.7 μg, C 104.5±46.2 mg, folates 176.4±63.1 μg and minerals: potassium 2276.4±762.4 mg, sodium 1951.4±583.0 mg, phosphorous 910.8±260.0 mg, zinc 7.3±2.1 mg, iodine 104.0±32.9 μg, calcium 580.1±170.6 mg, magnesium 249.6±91.2 mg in iron 9.1±3.4 mg.The average daily energy intake and average estimated daily intake of macronutrients of PSC were comparable to recommendations. We found low average estimated daily intake of vitamin D, folates and relative high intake of sodium in PSC diet.

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In 2009 Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) performed a countrywide representative dietary survey to obtain food consumption data for quantitative food safety risk assessment utilizable in the field of public health nutrition as well. The consumption of foodstuffs, daily energy- and nutrient intakes, nutritional habits and dietary supplement usage of Hungarian population was assessed. The complex system has included three-day dietary record and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. Some anthropometric parameters were also self-recorded. According to the body mass index, a considerable proportion of both the 31–60 years old males (69%) and females (46%) were overweight or obese. The energy intake of the Hungarian adult population is slightly exceeds the recommendation. The intake of proteins is satisfactory in general. The average intake of total fats is very high (36.1–38.9 energy percent), and the fatty acid composition — mostly the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids — is unfavourable, but the fatty acid pattern regarding saturated- (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid ratio shows favourable tendency. The proportion of complex carbohydrates within the intake of energy providing macronutrients is far lower than the optimal level, but it is a positive finding that added sugar intake is below the outmost recommendation. The average daily cholesterol intake is high (males: 469 mg, females: 335 mg), whilst the dietary fibre intake is lower than the recommended. The article provides data on alcohol, caffeine and fibre consumption, too.

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Energia- és tápanyagbeviteli értékek és azok kapcsolata a testösszetétellel coeliakiás betegekben

Energy and nutrient intakes and their relationship to body composition in patients with celiac disease

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Eszter Dakó
,
Sarolta Dakó
,
Veronika Papp
,
Márk Juhász
,
Johanna Takács
,
Éva Csajbókné Csobod
, and
Erzsébet Pálfi

Bevezetés: Coeliakia esetén a szigorú gluténmentes diéta mellett nagy jelentőséggel bír az optimális testösszetétel és a kiegyensúlyozott makro- és mikrotápanyag-tartalmú étrend. Célkitűzés: Célunk volt felmérni az energia- és tápanyagbevitelt, a testösszetételt és ezek kapcsolatát felnőtt, coeliakiás betegeknél. Módszer: Kutatásunk során 47, szövettannal is igazolt coeliakiás beteg (életkor: 36 ± 11,94 év) energia- és tápanyagbevitelét vizsgáltuk 7 napos táplálkozási-tüneti napló segítségével, a testösszetételt bioimpedancia-analízissel (InBody 770) mértük. A táplálkozási naplókat a NutriComp Sport 5.10 szoftver segítségével értékeltük ki. Eredmények: A betegek étrendjének fehérje-, élelmirost-, kalcium- és telítettzsírsav-tartalma szignifikánsan eltér a referenciaértékektől (p<0,05). A régebben diagnosztizált és az új nőbetegek csoportja között szignifikáns eltérés mutatkozik a vázizomtömeg-index tekintetében (új: 7,2 ± 1,2 kg/m2 vs. régi: 8,4 ± 0,8 kg/m2, p = 0,002). A Spearman-féle rangkorreláció eredménye szerint a testtömegindex és a hozzáadott cukor energiaszázalékos értéke statisztikailag szignifikáns, pozitív gyenge korrelációt mutat (ρ(44) = 0,318, p = 0,031). A férfiak testzsírtömege és az étrend hozzáadott cukortartalma statisztikailag szignifikáns, pozitív közepes kapcsolatot mutat (ρ(8) = 0,661, p = 0,038). A nők esetében a testzsírtömeg és a rostbevitel negatív gyenge korrelációt (ρ(33) = –0,344, p = 0,043) jelez. Következtetés: Eredményeink megerősítik, hogy a coeliakiás betegek tápláltsági állapotát és tápanyagbevitelét a diagnózis felállítását követően gondosan nyomon kell követni, különösen azoknál, akiknek a testösszetétele a megjelenéskor nem megfelelő, és/vagy akiknél táplálkozási rizikó áll fenn. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(51): 2024–2032.

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The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Hernández Rodríguez
,
D. Afonso Morales
,
E.M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
, and
C. Díaz Romero

Proximate composition was determined in 19 wheat cultivars from the Canary Islands in order to establish differences between them and contribute to their characterization. All parameters analysed showed significant differences between cultivars; and also many parameters were affected by the species and subspecies of wheat. Triticum aestivum had higher mean moisture, protein, and fibre and lower mean starch, sucrose, and amylose concentrations than Triticum turgidum. Low starch content and high fibre content could be due to the transformation of starch into resistant starch during desiccation process. An important contribution of complex carbohydrates, including fibre as well as protein and phenolic compounds, was observed for the consumption of wheat.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
E. Greiner
,
R. Újhelyi
,
E. Sólyom
,
L. Bíró
,
E. Mozsáry
,
A. Regölyi-Mérei
,
M. Antal
, and
A. Madarasi

The authors evaluated the data of 30 patients with cystic fibrosis (18 male, 12 female), between ages 2–18 (average age: 9.57 years). In 60% of the patients serum cholesterol was below the 5th percentile value according to the data of theNational Cholesterol Education Program(1991). They examined the connection between the serum cholesterol levels and the total fat, fatty acids and cholesterol intake. No significant differences were found between total fat, fatty acids and cholesterol intake of patients with serum cholesterol levels below the 5th percentile value and patients with levels above the 5th percentile value. The analysis of the nutritional data showed that lipid intake was in accordance with the proportion prescribed for patients with CF (35.56% of energy). The intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 11%, 11% and 8,3% of total energy, respectively, the PUFA/SFA ratio was 0.78. The ratio of linoleic to alfa-linolenic acid was especially high: 29. The clinical condition of the patients in the low cholesterol level group, as shown by the Shwachman-Kulczycki score was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the group with serum cholesterol levels above the 5th percentile value. The authors therefore suggest the importance of the regular monitoring of serum cholesterol levels in patients with cystic fibrosis. Observing the changes in serum cholesterol levels is a fast, informative and inexpensive method of evaluating the clinical course of the disease.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Rurik
,
E. Gyömörei
,
L. Biró
,
K. Nagy
,
A. Regöly-Mérei
, and
M. Antal

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of elderly belonging to one primary care office. Twenty-seven men and 26 women, all over 60 years, were involved. Nutritional assessment, anthropometric measurements were performed, serum proteins, lipid and iron status and haematological parameters were determined. Energy and protein intake was sufficient, but the distribution of energy with a high fat and low carbohydrate was inadequate. Iron, copper, calcium, retinol and folate intake was lower, whereas sodium, ascorbic acid and cobalamin intake was higher than the Hungarian recommendation. The prevalence of obesity characterized by body mass index or waist circumference was higher in women than in men. The percentage of pathological levels of lipid parameters was also higher in women. No iron deficient erythropoesis was detected, but high serum ferritin concentration as a marker of body iron store was determined in some cases.  General practitioners have possibilities to influence the nutritional habits of elderly, thereby reducing the incidence of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Iron status of Hungarian elderly looks to be satisfactory, so supplementation without testing the iron status would be useless and harmful.

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The authors of this publication content analyzed downloadable, digitally manageable, archaic and folkloristic texts related to the psychic layers of eating. In the background of obesity, evolutional, cultural factors and factors of socialisation are identified that have an effect via non-apperceived, irrational and emotional functions, and make lasting weight-loss difficult. The preference of fat, salty and sweet dishes is an evolutional heritage that is unhealthy among the current living conditions. The matching of eating circumstances with calmness and love in early childhood is a social heritage. The celebration of life’s great events with excessive eating together with loved ones is a cultural heritage. Owing to such traditions, eating is not merely nutrient-intake, but a process full of significant psychic values. Food has not only nutritional but also emotional values which latter aspect determines eating today more than physiological signs. During slimming, the psychotherapeutic exploration, the apperception and correction of the emotional value of eating are important.

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Az Országos Táplálkozás és Tápláltsági Állapot Vizsgálat 2009 a negyedik az Országos Élelmezés- és Táplálkozástudományi Intézet által vezetett országos táplálkozási vizsgálatok sorában. Célok: A vizsgálat célja időszerű és megbízható adatok biztosítása a magyar felnőtt lakosság energia- és tápanyagbeviteléről, táplálkozási szokásairól. Módszerek: Az energia- és tápanyagbevitel meghatározása a 18 év feletti lakosság korra és nemre reprezentatív mintájának háromnapos, három lépcsőben ellenőrzött táplálkozási naplója alapján történt. Eredmények: A magyar lakosság táplálkozásában a bevitt energia túl nagy százalékát adják a zsírok (39 E% férfiak, 36 E% nők), ezzel szemben a szénhidrátok energiaaránya túl kevés (45 E% férfiak, 48 E% nők), a fehérje energiaaránya (15 E% férfiak, 15 E% nők) azonban megfelel az ajánlásoknak. Kedvező, hogy a 2003–2004-es felméréshez képest a férfiak rostbevitele nőtt. Kedvezőtlen, hogy a férfiak koleszterinbevitele és mindkét nemnél a telített zsírsavak energiaaránya túl nagy. Következtetések: A táplálkozási kockázati tényezők csökkentése feltétlenül hozzájárulna a táplálkozásfüggő betegségek morbiditási és mortalitási arányainak javulásához. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1057–1067.

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