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Wheat-based food has great importance in human nutrition: in European countries they provide 20–30% of the daily calorie intake, and additionally, the wholemeal and healthy food becomes even more popular. Mineral content in grains is dependent on genetic and environmental factors (varieties, soil type, geographical location of the growing area, etc.), therefore, it is complicated to estimate how many percentage of the daily micronutrient requirements can be covered by wheat-based products. In this study, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) contents of 13 commercial wheat flour products, and the white flour and wholemeal of 24 winter type bread wheat varieties were studied to estimate the nutritional value of these products. All investigated samples were produced in Hungary. Significant variation was revealed in the case of all mineral elements in the different brands of wheat flours. Generally, the white flour enriched with germ showed higher mineral contents than the average values of normal white flours. Furthermore, the wholemeal has higher Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, but not higher Se contents than the white flours. Mo content was also higher in some brands of white flour than in wholemeal.The investigated winter wheat varieties showed significant differences in the case of Fe, Mn, Se and Zn contents, but none of the varieties showed outstandingly high micronutrient content. The milling process — as it was expected — reduces the concentrations of four elements (Fe 33%; Mn 88%; Zn 71%; Cu 44%); however, the Se and Mo concentrations were not affected significantly. Using the average micronutrient content in the wholemeal of varieties, the daily Mn and Fe requirement can be covered by the consumption of about 250 g wholemeal. Additionally, the daily Mo requirement could be met by the daily consumption of 140–190 g of commercial white or wholemeal flour.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Aloudat, A. Papp, N. Magyar, L. Simon Sarkadi and A. Lugasi

blogs. The nutritional values of the meals were analysed according to US Dietary Guidelines. The recipes analysed in this study met energy recommendations but were excessive in saturated fat and sodium. In a cross sectional study, Trattner and co

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Crisan, E.V. & Sands, A. (1978): Nutritional value.-in: Chang, S.T. & Hayes, W.A. (Eds) The biology and cultivation of edible mushrooms . Academic Press, New York, pp. 727–793. Sands A

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The enrichment of bread with wheat bran as a source of dietary fibre seems to be necessary for human health, because bread is the most consumed commodity in many countries. However, wheat bran has some adverse effects on the bread quality during storage. The aim of this study was to produce barbari bread with increased nutritional value and improved texture by the addition of coated wheat bran (0.67 and 1.34% based on flour stearic acid or St1, 2 and beeswax or Bw1, 2). Bread made from uncoated wheat bran was used as control. The least crust to crumb ratio was seen for control and Bw1. Water activity and moisture content results showed that the crumb of Bw1 and control had the better moisture retention during storage. Textural properties of samples showed that there were no significant differences in the hardness of the samples (P>0.05). However, the least increase in hardness during storage was observed for stearic acid coated samples. Other texture profile analysis parameters, such as cohesiveness and springiness, showed that Bw1 and Bw2 samples had no significant changes during storage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed the least enthalpy for Bw1 after baking (385.21 J g–1) and during storage (567.62 J g–1). Accordingly, results showed that beeswax, especially at 0.67% (based on flour), is the best shell material for bran coating in order to improve bread texture and shelf life.

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Abstract  

Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream>creme caramel>jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium.

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The fatty acid composition of wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) were compared with gas chromatography. These two species are widely cultivated in Europe and represent a significant portion of consumed fish in the region. The aim of the present work was to compare the nutritional value of fatty acids in the flesh of wild sea bass and sea bream. Significant differences were observed in the saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid content. The presence of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids in the flesh of sea bream in quantities far exceeding those in sea bass make sea bream less suitable for preventing cardiovascular diseases. The poly-unsaturated n-3 fatty acids with both anti-atherogenetic and anti-inflammatory action in sea bass surpass those of sea bream by a total of 30%. Sea bass also contains 60% more C22:6n-3. Compared to sea bream, sea bass appears to be more suitable for the diet of people suffering from cardiac diseases, angiopathy, inflammations and Alzheimer’s disease.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Alojzije Lalic, Josip Kovacevic, Georg Drezner, Dario Novoselovic, Darko Babic, Kresimir Dvojkovic and Gordana Simic

The objective of research was to determine grain yield, hectoliter weight, grain proteins and starch content of 17 winter barley cultivars from trials at four locations (Tovarnik, Nova Gradiska, Pozega and Osijek) and during three years (2002 to 2005). All traits were significantly influenced by year (Y), location (L) and genotype (G) while sowing rate (300 and 450 seeds per m 2 ) and genotype*sowing rate (G*D) did not affect trait means (P>0,05). Interactions as year* sowing rate (Y*D), location*sowing rate (L*D) and year*location*sowing rate caused significant influence to grain yield and proteins and starch content in grains. Regression coefficient “bi”, ecovalence “W i ” and variance of deviations from regressions “S 2 d i ” pointed out best performance of cultivars Barun, Bingo and Gvozd in more intensive growing conditions due to its top yielding, lowest proteins and rich starch content of grains. Opposite to this, best yield and quality performance of cultivars at low input production could be expected from cultivars Plaisant, Vanessa, Favorit, Lord and Heraklo.

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Vernonia amygdalina Del leaf meal (LM), leaf protein concentrates (LPC) and LPC fibre residues (LR) were characterised and the biological activity of LPC was studied. Five infant weaning foods based on V. amygdalina -LPC (VALPC) were compared with three coded commercial infant weaning foods in a 4-week feeding trial using rats as animal model. The LM contained 318.2±2.11 g kg −1 crude protein and this increased by 38.5% to 517.4±1.20 g kg −1 in LPC. Also, the LM contained 96.0±1.8 g kg −1 crude fibre and this decreased by 81.25% to 18.0±1.1 g kg −1 in LPC. The gross energy in the LM (1.56 MJ kg −1 ) increased by 17.9% to 1.90 MJ kg −1 in LPC. The LPC contained higher Na, Ca, Mg, K and Fe than either the LM or LR, while fractionation reduced phytin and tannin contents. Rats fed solely on VALPC lost weight in the biological activity trial. Rats fed 25% VALPC+75% soybean meal (SBM) combination had the highest final weight (FW), while rats fed CFN, a coded commercial food, had the smallest. It was concluded that 25% VALPC+75% SBM mixture is the optimal combination.

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Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) has been used in European phytotherapy as a urological and antiphlogistical remedy for centuries. The behaviour of dissolution of mineral elements into different tinctures and aqueous extracts obtained from Solidaginis herba was investigated in connection with their quercetin glycoside and organic acid amount. Commonly applied aqueous and alcoholic extracts were analysed for Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn content. The concentrations of the minerals examined were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of the flavonoids in solidaginis herba and extracts was carried out by a spectrophotometric method, as required by the German Pharmacopoea. For the study of the flavonoid composition of crude drug, the HPLC technique was applied. To determine the relative nutrient contribution of these pharmaceuticals to the diet, data obtained were combined with flavonoid content particulars, then a comparison with U.S Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) was made. For evaluation of the phytotherapeutic relevance, k/Na ratio was also calculated. It has been found that the pharmaceuticals examined are important sources of potassium, chromium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and lower sources of iron and zinc, assuming a daily intake of 1-2 l aqueous extracts as recommended for urological diseases. Flavonoid content of the different Solidaginis herba extracts ranged from 62.4 mg l-1 to 305.2 mg l-1.

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The trial for winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) or spring barley ( Hordeum vulgaris L. ) in rotation with maize ( Zea mais L. ) on lessive-pseudogley in semiarid to semihumid climate of Eastern Croatia was set up during years 1996–1999 with five soil tillage systems: PL) Conventional tillage based on ploughing; PD) Conventional tillage after diskharrowing for previous crop in preceding season; DP) Diskharrowing after conventional tillage for previous crop in preceding season; DD) Continuous diskharrowing, and CD) Chiselling and diskharrowing. During first and second season (1996/97 and 1997/98), recorded winter wheat grain yields were not different, with PL having the highest and DD the lowest yield. Maize showed next differences in first season: PL=PD>CH=DD=DP, and in second season PD=PL=DP=CH>DD. In 1999, spring barley replaced winter wheat, and yields were: PL>DP>PD>CD>DD. Maize yields recorded were: PL>PD>DP>CH>DD. The grain yield results, together with hectoliter mass and mass of 1000 grains, supported that PL can be replaced with other tillage systems for winter wheat and spring barley, whereas continuous diskharrowing may have substantially lower yields for maize during unfavourable years.

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