Authors:L. Zhang, X. Shu, X. Wang, H. Lu, Q. Shu, and D. Wu
Five giant embryo mutants, described as
MH-gel, MH-ge2, MH-ge3, MH-ge4
, which were derived from the same indica rice
. ‘Minghui 86’ and characterized by 2.0, 1.88, 2.08, 1.93 and 1.88 times enlarged embryo than that of wild type, were selected for the current study. The mutated giant embryos were controlled by a single recessive gene, and except mutated locus with
other four loci were allelic to each other and the previous reported locus
in japonica rice
. ‘Kinmaze’. No obvious differences in physicochemical properties such as apparent amylose content (AAC), alkali spreading value (ASV), gel consistency (GC), and starch paste viscosity were observed between giant embryo mutants and wild type. Significant increases in the contents of crude lipid (LC), crude protein (PC), Vitamin B1 (V
), Vitamin B2 (V
), Vitamin E (V
), essential amino acids such as Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), and mineral elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were detected in brown rice (BR) of giant embryo mutants. The amounts of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, were similar in the BR of giant embryo mutants and wild type, and more GABA content was observed in germinated brown rice (GBR) than BR. Significant enrichments were detected in the GBR of giant embryo mutants, basically corresponding to the enlarged embryo.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology, as a promising alternative of thermal-treatment and chemical preservatives, can be used to produce minimally processed foods. It has the advantage of affecting only non-covalent bonds of macromolecules in foods, and thus preserves nutritional components, taste, and flavour exceptionally well. However, HHP also influences enzymatic reactions of food. Although some of these changes are often beneficial, monitoring the potential effects of high pressure treatments — especially in the field of product and technology development — is essential. The aim of this study was to point out some parameters of high hydrostatic pressure technique (pressure, temperature, build-up time, holding time, number of cycles) that can substantially impact the sensory properties of treated products.
Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation temperature and time were investigated on broccoli florets at different blanching treatments. In addition, retention of nutritional components,which reduced POD and LOX activities, was compared. LOX inactivation required 14 min at 70 °C, 6 min at 80 °C, 11/2 min at 90 °C, 1 min at 100 °C water blanching and 1 min for steam blanching, 2 min in microwave without water and 6 min with microwave and water. The highest nutritional content of broccoli was evaluated in microwave blanching without water by comparison to all treatments. The decline of nitrate and nitrite value of broccoli was higher under longer time blanching than under higher temperature blanching.
Authors:Attila Szendrői, Ákos Tordé, Judit Vargha, Gergely Bánfi, András Horváth, Csaba Horváth, and Péter Nyirády
A húgyúti kövesség a fejlett országokban a metabolikus és endokrin okok mellett
egyre gyakrabban fordul elő a helytelen táplálkozási szokások, az elhízás és a
mozgásszegény életmód miatt. Ezért az urológusok és az alapellátásban dolgozók
mindennapi munkájában kiemelt szerepet kellene, hogy kapjon az elsődleges és
másodlagos prevenció. A megelőzés a testsúlykontrollon, a testmozgáson és a
gyógyszeres kezelésen túl a megfelelő diétán alapul. Az étrend különböző
alkotóelemei megváltoztathatják a vizelet összetételét és ezáltal annak
túltelítettségét fokozhatják, amely alapja a kőképződésnek. Az étrendi
összetevők vagy elősegítik a kövesség megelőzését (fokozott folyadékbevitel,
citrát, magnézium, gyümölcsök és zöldségek), vagy hajlamosítóan hatnak annak
kialakulására (kevés folyadékbevitel, fehérjében, szénhidrátban, zsírban,
oxalátban, sóban, kalciumban gazdag étrend, aszkorbinsav stb.).
Összefoglalónkban bizonyítékokkal alátámasztott étrendi javaslatokat
fogalmaztunk meg, amelyek a húgyúti kövesség elsődleges és másodlagos
megelőzésében gyakorlati haszonnal bírnak. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22):
Food supply chain is long, complex and comprises different stages — from raw material production, processing, distribution to retail. There are some environmental factors, which can affect nutritional components of plants being the raw materials in the food industry. Plants have developed a number of defense mechanisms to any injuries occurring. Jasmonates — formed from linolenic acid on the allene oxide synthase pathway — are considered to play the key role in plant defense mechanisms. It has been found that there is a relationship between jasmonates and production of new proteins, glucosinolates and polyphenolic compounds. The effect of jasmonates on carbohydrates and other plant metabolites has also been reported. Jasmonates are characterised by olfactory properties and thus can exert an effect on sensory quality of foods and contribute to commercial attractiveness of foods. Moreover, the implications resulting from consumption of jasmonate-affected foods appear to be of high immensity and can have severe adverse effects on human health, and on the other hand, jasmonates appear to be a promising means in directed production of chemical compounds and pharmaceuticals as well as a preservative substance during food storage.
Biochemical and elemental compositions, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, some levels of toxicants and anti-nutritional substances of the leaflets of a tropic fern species, Nephrolepis furcans were investigated. This is to ascertain its nutrient and toxicity levels; potentiality of its incorporation into livestock feeds; for feeding domestic animals and cultivation for ornamental purposes. Proximate analysis showed the presence of 0.87% protein, 85% moisture, 0.24% fat, 2.10% ash, 3.26% crude fibre, 8.53% carbohydrate, 15 g / 100 g dry matter, 18.18 mg /100 g ascorbic acid and 0.11% vitamin A. Mineral elements present include chromium 12.00±0.0004 (mg/100 g), iron 2,620.25±0.0036 (mg/100 g), manganese 6.00±0.0002 (mg/100 g), cobalt 244.50±0.002 (mg/100 g), cadmium 59.00±0.0002 (mg/100 g), lead 62.50±0.0015 (mg/100 g), magnesium 1,426.50±0.0002 (mg/100 g), calcium 13,041.00± 0.0172 (mg/100 g), mercury 431.75±0.0003 (mg/100 g), nickel 1,070.25±0.0005 (mg/100 g), potassium 2,515.00± 0.0027 (mg/100 g), sodium 803.00±0.0007 (mg/100 g), selenium 920.75±0.021 (mg/100 g), arsenium 1923.50±0.0030 (mg/100 g). Copper and zinc were not detected. Toxic components were oxalate 0.216 mg / 100 g and hydrogen cyanide 0.040 mg/100 g. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannin, flavonoids, cardiac-glycoside, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, but saponin, alkaloids and phlobatannins were not detected. Anti-nutritional substances detected are lignin, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and hemicellulose. The toxic and anti-nutritional components are very low and are not likely to pose any serious health hazard to the ruminants eating this plant.
Authors:A Molnár, I Jónásné Sztruhár, ÁA Csontos, Cs Ferencz, Sz Várbíró, and B Székács
developed consensus regarding the potentially efficient muscle protecting nutritionalcomponents in the elderly people ( 7 , 8 , 15 , 28 , 29 ). Patients were randomized to receive either the intervention of physiotherapy (PT) or the physiotherapy
Authors:G. Ucak Ozkaya, A. Besir, E. Metin, and M.Z. Durak
are frequently consumed by the modern community around the world ( Butscher et al., 2016 ). The health-promoting efficacy of fresh vegetables and fruit, which contain essential nutritionalcomponents such as vitamins, minerals, fibre, and polyphenols