Radiation Research Institute strictly emphasize on the hazards of electromagnetic fields that threaten the public health as a major environmental risk. ICNIRP has announced the standard limit of occupationalexposure and non-occupational residential exposure
Authors:Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Sandy Pacheco-Vega, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Diana Saldaña-Simental, Luis Sánchez-Anguiano, Misael Salcedo-Jáquez, Agar Ramos-Nevárez, Oliver Liesenfeld, José Márquez-Conde, Sandra Cerrillo-Soto, Lucio Martínez-Ramírez and Carlos Guido-Arreola
The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined.Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01).No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii.
Authors:J Kučera, V. Bencko, J. Tejral, L. Borská, L. Soukal and Z. Řanda
Occupational exposure was examined for 20 workers dealing with welding, polishing, and assembling of stainless steel vessels. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for determination of selected elements in hair and nail, whereas urinary Cr and Mn, blood Mn and serum Cr were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Increased levels of Cr in hair, nails, serum and urine, Mo in hair, and Mn in blood were found in the exposed group compared to controls. Accuracy of the results was proven by analysis of reference materials and by comparison of element levels in controls with reference values for non-exposed persons.
Authors:M. Menezes, E. Pereira Maia, S. Filho and C. Albinati
In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies.
Authors:R. Georgescu, A. Pantelica, D. Craciun and R. Grosescu
A multivariate statistical technique-factoral discriminant analysis (FDA)-has been used to evaluate the occupational esposure
of a group of metallurgy workers using the elemental composition of their scalp hair, as compared with a control group. The
initial variables were the concentrations of ten minor and trace elements Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V, and Zn determined
in hair samples by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A good discrimination between exposed and control
subjects has been achieved after the normalization of the data (by log-transforming the initial variables) and considering
sex-matched groups. To measure the accuracy of the classification and the predictive ability a cross-validation procedure
Authors:P. Pellow, G. Stradling, A. Hodgson, T. Fell, A. Phipps and M. Ellender
The absorption kinetics for uranium into blood after deposition as tri-n-butylphosphate (UTBP) in the rat lung were combined with human data on particle deposition and clearance from the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract model and information from the most recent ICRP biokinetic model for uranium to predict the consequences for exposure of workers. These predictions suggest that, (1) the biokinetics of UTBP are similar to those for a Type F compound as defined by ICRP, (2) the dose coefficient is essentially independent of the aerosol size and isotopic composition, (3) the mass of uranium equivalent to the ALI can vary by 13 fold depending upon the isotopic composition, (4) intakes of uranium as UTBP other than chronic intakes as highly enriched forms should be restricted on the basis of the chemical toxicity of uranium, (5) the assessment of intake by urine bioassay measurements should be interpreted with caution unless the exposure conditions are well defined and (6) severe kidney damage is unlikely at intakes corresponding to the ALI or daily limit.
The observation of chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocyte karyotype is the conclusive method to assess the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Our study compared the incidence of chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed healthy medical workers and in not exposed healthy population. We analyzed the effect of working place, dose by thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD), duration of occupational exposure (DOE) and age on the sum of aberrant cells and aberrations. The four-year study included 462 subjects with a mean age of 42.3 years, who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and 95 subjects with a mean age of 35.2 years, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, during the same time period and from the same territory. All of them possess TLD which is read by a scanner for thermo luminescence dosimeters. Modified Moorhead’s micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of chromosome aberration analysis were used for the analysis of chromosome aberrations. Stained preparations (Gyms) are observed in immersion by light microscope. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase is analyzed; the most characteristic aberration: dicentric, then the ring and acentric fragments. The incidence of chromosome aberrations was found to be 21.6% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the controls, while the “findings within the limits” (non-specific chromosome lesions – gaps, breaks, elongations, and exchanges) were equal in the two groups (22%). Among occupationally exposed medical workers, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedists (27.08%). There is a highly significant difference of the number of aberrant cells and the sum of chromosome aberrations between the exposed and control groups (
< 0.001). The sum of chromosome aberrations and the number of aberrant cells were in positive correlation with the duration of exposure (
< 0.001), and to a less degree of probability with the age (
< 0.05) in the exposed workers. In the controls, this correlation was negative and insignificant. The group of subjects with a duration of occupational exposure up to 15 years had a significantly smaller number of aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations in comparison to the subjects with longer duration of occupational exposure, over 15 years.
Authors:B. Rana, A. Shukla, R. Topno, R. Tripathi and V. Puranik
The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative
behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha
(LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in
2006–2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m−3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m−3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h−1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h−1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively.
The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m−3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m−3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to
1.41 mSv y−1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y−1.