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The present paper focuses on the use of old maps and written sources in analyses of the landscape structure and husbandry in the first half of the 19th century. The studied area is situated in the Boletice Military Area in Southern Bohemia (southwest of the Czech Republic). Attention was paid in particular to the area of the former villages of Ondřejov and Chlumany. The maps of the First and the Second Military Surveys, Stable Cadastre, and forestry maps were used for the analysis, together with selected written sources. The results show that ingenious agriculture including mowing, grazing of a notable number of cattle, ploughing and forestry was once characteristic in the area. This paper presents especially the woodland structure in the area and some inconsistencies that were found on the old maps.

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’, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 122–127. Zimová R, Pešt’ák J, Veverka B 2006: Historical Military Mapping of Czech Lands — Positional Accuracy of Old Maps. GIM International, Vol. 20,Issue 10, 21

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Tabula Hungariae (1528), created by Lazarus (Secretarius), is an almost 500 year-old map depicting the whole Pannonian Basin. It has been used for several geographic and regional science studies because of its highly valued information context. From geoscientific point of view this information can also be evaluated. In this contribution an attempt is made to analyse in some extent the paleo-hydrogeography presented in the map, reconsidering the approach of previous authors, assuming that the mapmaker did not make large, intolerable errors and the known problems of the cartographic implementation are rather exceptional.According to the map the major lakes had larger extents in the 16th century than today, even a large lake (Lake Becskerek) ceased to exist. Concerning the fluvial pattern, a detailed analysis is possible for the Danube. Important changes can be implied at the Danube Bend, and there was a stronger tendency of island formation (i.e., tendency towards braided style) downstream from the present day Budapest. In most of the cases the assumption of the depicted islands is feasible. The existence of a few paleo-islands not present today can be validated by historical sources as well. Furthermore, the river Sárvíz, today a less important watercourse, might have had more importance in the transport at that time, probably due to its larger water discharge.Summarizing the observations it seems that these are indications of larger discharge values and/or a wetter climate in the Central Pannonian Basin in the 16th century.

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Brůna V, Křováková K 2006: Old maps in the GIS and Internet environment (in Czech with English summary). In: GEOS 2006. 1st International Fair of Geodesy, Cartography, Navigation and Geoinformatics, Conference Proceedings

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Brůna V, Křováková K 2006: Old maps in the GIS and Internet environment (in Czech with English summary). Conference Proceedings, GEOS 2006, 1st International Fair of Geodesy, Cartography, Navigation and

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A method is presented and discussed that minimises uncertainties in change analysis of sequential vegetation maps due tot subjectivity in boundary interpretation. This previous boundary method is based upon the concept of „map changes”, which implies that sequential maps are not made independently but are based upon a previous map: only changes in the old maps boundaries (both in space and vegetation typology) are interpreted. It was shown that the map changes concept increased the reliability of change analysis results in a coastal salt marsh in the Netherlands. The method may be applied easily in other studies in which photo-interpretation is used for monitoring purposes. The method is especially recommended in low dynamic areas, where slow changes in vegetation patterns take place and the effects of photo-interpretation uncertainty are relatively high.

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The advantages brought by high resolution satellite data in activities related to flood mapping and flood monitoring are well know in the scientific community. The paper aims to prove that slighter older geospatial documents, such as historical maps, are also a valuable resource for cartographers and decision makers to achieve a better understanding of flood patterns and evolution. Some preparatory actions are needed in order to integrate the old maps into GIS environments for advanced analysis. This includes scanning, color enhancements, georeferencing, reprojection and metadata creation. To illustrate the process, the paper includes a real case scenario: the April 2006 Danube River flood. For one of the most affected sectors along the Danube, close to Rast village, three generations of historical maps (the Austrian 1:200 000 ‘degree maps’, the Romanian 1:20 000 ‘Lambert-Cholesky’ maps and the Soviet Union 1:100 000 ‘Gauss-Krüger’ maps) were processed and included in a large repository. At any time, the maps can be identified and accessed through open standard protocols like CSW and WMS. In this way, we were able to integrate and analyze the flood water masks, extracted from satellite data, along with the historical data sets. The results were very promising. It was possible to understand some flood patterns and to clearly demonstrate that, after the dike failure, the water filled up an area which in the past, before river regulation, was the natural Danube floodplain.

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Preliminary attempts to georeference maps of early twentieth century made by the Military Geographic Institute (IGM, the Italian geodetic agency) for the city of Rome and its surroundings, reported residual errors larger than errors observed on similar maps. Previous studies carried out on one or two century older maps of the same area, showed similar or even smaller errors (Baiocchi and Lelo 2005).Six sheets of the “City of Rome and its surroundings” map in scale 1:5 000 dated 1908 have been studied. The identified errors can be referred to the different system of geodetic projection and geodetic datum or to the derivation of some details from maps at smaller scale, but in this case historic documents seem to suggest a different explanation.Parameters useful to perform the transformation of the geodetic systems used in historical maps to modern systems are not known; for this reason until now the various attempts of georeferencing maps of this type were based on collimation of points recognizable on modern cartographies such as corners of historical buildings. This method has often given unsatisfactory results; therefore it was decided to proceed by determining the parameters for the transformation of geodetic datum.The history of geodetic systems used in Italy at the beginning of the 20th century is complex and, in the past, this has led some researcher to misinterpretations. For this reason a full explanation of geodetic systems used in Italy in this period is reported below. Since the parameters of the projection used for the maps in our case study are not known for sure, the reprojection was considered the only way for a correct georeferencing.

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2007 Podobnikar T, Šinkovec I 2004: Ljubljana — mutual analyses of the georeferenced old maps. In: Javno dobro: indentifikacija, upotreba, upravljanje

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. Skokanová. 2009. Land use changes (recorded in old maps) and delimitation of the most stable areas from the perspective of land use in the Kašperské Hory region. Landscape Ecol. 88(1): 20–34. Skokanová H

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