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. Die lustige Witwe and the Birth of Silver Age Viennese Operetta. Unpublished MS. Baranello, Micaela, 2013. From Kálmán Imre to Emmerich Kálmán: Framing Hungary in Der Zigeunerprimas. Presented at the annual

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Kálmán’s 1928 operetta Die Herzogin von Chicago reemerged in the 1990s after decades of oblivion. Productions of this work can reveal much about topics such as the relationship of Central Europe and America and attitudes toward outsider groups, both in the 1920s and in more recent times. This study of the 2004 production at the Vienna Volksoper uses interviews to explore the work’s political and social meanings for Austrian audiences. It also examines the changes made in this production, which was adapted from the original by Stefan Frey and Dominik Wilgenbus, examines the question of what is “true operetta style,” and considers recent operetta reception in Vienna, with attention to the very different responses of the audience and the critics.

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Among the wealth of German operettas, an important place is occupied by works referring to Polish subjects in their plots, or featuring Polish characters. The moral judgments passed on the persons of the drama frequently reveal generalisations concerning large communities or even entire nations. At the present stage of research, I can confirm the existence of about a dozen German operettas containing Polish motives. For my analysis, I have selected three operettas: Polnische Wirtschaft, Polenblut and Die blaue Mazur, composed in more or less the same period – the 1910s. An analysis of characters and topics recurring in these operettas proves that certain prejudices and stereotypes play a major role in the construction of events and the characterisation of dramatis personae. An important role in the creation of national stereotypes is also played by musical categories associated with Polish culture, mainly national dances – the krakowiak and the mazur. The three stage works discussed in this paper, created in a period of historical transformation associated with Poland’s rebirth as an independent country, appear to offer excellent arguments in the ongoing debate on the role of national stereotypes in communication between neighbouring nations.

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Mihály Nádor’s and Jenő Faragó’s three-act operetta entitled Offenbach was one of the biggest theater successes in Budapest in the period following World War I. The piece, whose first performance took place at the Király Theater in 1920, was also premiered in Vienna, Prague, Munich and in different adaptations in Berlin and New York. It represents a popular type of operetta of the era, whose main protagonists are nineteenth-century composers, and whose music was partly or entirely compiled of melodies taken from the musicians in question. In my study, I examine the extant musical and textual sources of the piece partly belonging to the composer’s estate preserved at the Music Department of the Széchényi National Library. I interpret Nádor’s work as a document of the Budapest Offenbach reception, and I reveal some intriguing differences between the Budapest and Vienna versions of the piece. I also demonstrate that the operetta was in all likelihood an imitation of Henrich Berté’s similar piece, Das Dreimäderlhaus, which was performed in every Budapest operetta theater between 1916 and 1924. At the same time, however, a successful new production of Offenbach’s La Belle Hélène was likewise an important antecedent for Nádor’s operetta.

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1. Operetta or Zarzuela? The terms zarzuela and operetta appear interchangeable in recent international scholarship. 2 This is partially explained by the shared characteristics between these genres, such as spoken dialogue interspersed with musical

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segments of contemporary musical life: Bartha (1908–1993) was a musicologist, Nádor (1882–1944) a successful operetta composer, while Dohnányi (1877–1960) was a “serious” composer, pianist and conductor – an outstanding figure of twentieth-century Beethoven

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Ivan Zajc (Rijeka/Fiume, 1832 — Zagreb, 1914), a composer and teacher, came to Zagreb in 1870, after his schooling in Milan, and operetta career in Vienna. His task was: 1) to establish a permanent opera ensemble within the National Theatre, 2) to prepare and perform a standard operatic repertoire, and 3) to create Croatian national operas. The article deals with a segment of his operatic output in the sphere of national music, articulated in his national-historic trilogy (Mislav, Ban Leget and Nikola Šubić Zrinjski), but also in a “merry folk opera” Zlatka, and some elements can be traced in his later work Primorka. The article deals also with his three operas (Lizinka, Pan Tvardovski, Gospodje i husari), where the composer (together with his librettists) tried to approach pan-Slavic ideas. The discussed elements are the changes in ideological directions of these operas, their plots and their musical presentation, as well as opinions of both the composer and his librettists, and the reception of these works performed in Zagreb are discussed.

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After the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty in September 1947, Pula, a town in the south of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, became a part of the People’s Republic of Croatia and Yugoslavia. The period after the takeover of the city by the Communist authorities until the mid-1950s was marked by intense emigration, mostly of the Italian population, and also by re-industrialization and urbanization. At the same time, the process of forming art and culture according to the new ideological demands began. The instrumentalization of cultural life by ideology in the period between 1947 and 1955 left a significant trace on Pula’s musical life. One of the main tasks of the authorities in the field of music culture was to promote musical education and popularize musical art, which was to be made available to a wider audience, especially labourers. The choice of music genres was narrowed significantly in order to ensure a close connection between the artist, his work, and the people. In the formative period of socialism in Pula, a music school opened, numerous cultural and artistic societies were established, operas were regularly performed at the theater and the Arena, and the city even had an operetta ensemble.

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operetta (Schopenhauer operetta) in Hattyú , Pál Réz (ed.) (Budapest: Szépirodalmi Kiadó). Kosztolányi, D. (1974) Képek a képekről (Pictures of the pictures) in Pál Réz (ed.) Sötét bujócska (Dark Hide and Seek

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. H eltai , Gyöngyi 2004 Operett diplomácia. A Csárdáskirálynő a Szovjetunióban 1955-56 fordulóján [Operetta Diplomacy. The Princess Csárdás in Moscow and Leningrad 1955-1956] . Aetas 20 ( 3-4 ): 87 – 118

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