In German speaking countries Haydn’s oratorios, and particularly
, have played an important role in the repertoire of choral societies and music festivals since the 1810s. However, in France, and also in Paris — “the capital of the 19th century” —, Haydn’s oratorios were performed only on rare occasions, and then they were given mostly in parts. The reasons for these circumstances can be seen in the institutional and esthetical context of the Parisian concert life. With respect to professional concert societies, like the
Société des Concerts du Conservatoire
, rigid obstacles were on the one hand the enormous financial risk of a complete oratorio performance. On the other hand the established type of concert programmes with its varied mixture of vocal and instrumental pieces functioned as a barrier. Most important was a lack of mixed amateur choral societies, which developed in Paris quite late, primary in the 1840s, and then only little by little. Since oratorio performances lasted to be mostly a private affaire in the first half of the 19th century, it is not surprising, that Haydn’s oratorios were studied in aristocratic salons of Princesse de Belgiojoso and Baron Delmar with the intention of both education and entertainment.
It is evident that The Three Kings march of the Christus oratorio by Liszt is a verbunkos associated with the Eastern identity of Hungarians. What message did Liszt, who used musical motifs very consciously, wish to convey to the people of his time? I will approach the question not from a musicological aspect, but in the form of a cultural-studies type research. On the basis of the studies of Jácint Rónay and János Erdélyi dealing with national characterology, I wish to highlight how the Hungarian national identity and the myth of Eastern origin were related. I shall also examine in my paper paintings that bear close connection with the piece in question. Among these, Adoration of the Magi by Stephan Lochner is of vital importance, as according to the biographer of Liszt, Lina Ramann, it was the inspirational source of the movement in question of the Christus oratorio. The study attempts to find an answer to the relationship between the Lochner painting and The Three Kings march as well; and we shall see that it is also related to the question of the Eastern identity of the Hungarians.
A kastélyok, paloták, kúriák, „várkastélyok”, várak – vagyis a főúri lakóhelyek – elsősorban profán építészeti műfajt képviselnek, azonban funkcionális sokszínűségüket és komplexitásukat jól reprezentálja, hogy többségük szakrális rendeltetéselemeket is befogadott. A házikápolna a világi főúri lakóhelyekben az otthoni vallásgyakorlás legfontosabb színhelye, amely a 19. század közepéig jellemzően a főúri vallásosság szimbóluma volt. A házikápolnák térkompozíciója a liturgia egyszerűsített változatára specializálódott. Ugyanakkor a főúri, valamint a köznépi együttes jelenlét funkcionálisan differenciált, tagolt téralakítást eredményezett. A 18. századi példák nagy belmagasságú, karzatokkal kialakított, boltozott csarnokterei késő középkori hagyományon alapulhattak, ugyanakkor korabeli jellemzőjük, hogy közvetlen udvari bejáratuk révén nyilvános liturgiára is alkalmasak voltak. A házikápolnák diszpozíciója a 18–19. században rendkívüli változatosságot mutatott. Az 1850 előtti példáknál az épületen belüli térkapcsolatot a főúri oratórium-karzat biztosította, amely jellemzően a férfi lakosztály felől – annak földszinti vagy emeleti elhelyezésétől függetlenül – volt megközelíthető. Az időszakban volt példa arra, hogy a kápolna a női oldalon helyezkedett el, és volt példa a két lakosztály közötti diszpozícióra is. A nagyvonalú, attraktív kialakítású nyilvános kápolnák mellett kisebb, helyiségsorba illeszkedő, lakosztályokon belülre pozícionált magánkápolnát is gyakran létesítettek a korszakban. A 19. század közepétől a házikápolnák hagyományos funkcionalitása megmaradt, de elhelyezésükre jellemző volt a tulajdonosi lakosztályoktól távolabbi, esetenként a vendéglakrészekhez az épületszárnyak végén kapcsolódó, tehát az elsődleges forgalmi terektől kieső, „perifériás” diszpozíció, de előfordult a központi társasági terek monumentális csoportjához történő hangsúlyos kapcsolódás is.
Summary. Castles, palaces, mansions, fortresses – namely the noble households – are elements of the profane architectural genre primarily, but their functional diversity and complexity are well represented by the fact that most of them have sacred functions as well. The home chapel of the secular noble households can be considered as the most important venue for religious practice at home, which was a typical symbol of the noble religiousness until the mid-19th century. The spatial composition of the home chapels was specialized to a simplified version of the liturgy. Nevertheless, the joint presence of the nobility and the common folk resulted in a functionally differentiated, articulated space form. The 18th-century examples of vaulted halls with high ceilings and galleries could have been based on a late-medieval tradition, but they were suitable for public liturgy as well through their direct courtyard entrance. The disposition of the home chapels was very various in the 18th and 19th centuries. As for the pre-1850 examples their spatial connection within the building was provided by the noble oratorial gallery, which was accessible from the male apartments typically, regardless of its layout in ground-floor or upstairs. At the same time there were also some examples of a chapel on the female side, and between the two apartments as well. In addition to the generous, attractive public chapels, also smaller private chapels were often built within the apartments at that time. From the middle of the 19th century the traditional functionality of the home chapels was preserved, but it became typical that the location of the chapels was rather away from the owner apartments, in some cases connected to the guest apartments at the end of the building wings, which meant a “peripheral” disposition to the primary paths of usage. Besides, there are examples to an emphatic connection to the monumental group of central social rooms.
created his own version of musical modernism. Albrecht overcame local provincialism and composed many noteworthy and audacious works – the Piano Suite (1924), Sonatina for 11 Instruments (1926), and Marienleben (1929), an “oratorio-like” composition, to
basis of preserved sources, Chapter Six (
The Prima Donna of Oratorios
) gives an informative overview of her activity as Handel's oratorio singer, running parallel with the last five years of her London operatic fame (1732
, the performance indeed aroused a certain “fanaticism,” at least with regard to this piece. On 11 November 1866, Tito Ricordi announced in the Gazzetta Musicale di Milano that “Abbé Liszt has completed his oratorio entitled Christ.” 25 In fact, this
Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, he performed with the above-mentioned ensembles Joseph Haydn’s oratorios Die sieben letzten Worte unseres Erlösers am Kreuze (The Seven Last Words of Our Savior on the Cross) in 1907 and Die Schöpfung (The Creation) in 1908
occasion by Handel.
The bills are very detailed and their importance manifold. Probably the most significant are the ones indicating the costs of copying Handel's works – mostly cantatas, but also two oratorios and some Latin Church music – and thus
performance in August 1865 of the oratorio Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth , conducted by the author himself on the 25th anniversary of the foundation of the Pest-Buda Conservatory. In his letter, Liszt wrote that the oratorio’s premiere took place
the program usually featured works by Cypriot composers – usually sombre music. In 2013 the other composition included in the program was a popular oratorio written by Yiorgos Kotsonis and Anthos Lykavgis in honour of Makarios, entitled Makarios now