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The question of external collaboration in the working out of Ferenc Erkel’s operatic scores had been raised as early as 1861, after the premiere of Bánk bán, but only one hundred years later were the autographs subjected by László Somfai to a critical assessment. His findings induced him to determine Act 2 of the celebratory opera Erzsébet, premiered in 1857, as the first work in which Erkel in part delegated the task of orchestration to his friend Franz Doppler. Dezső Legánÿ later attempted to date the beginning of the “Erkel Workshop” into the year 1844 when Erkel first tried his hand at the then new genre of népszínmü (folk-play). The present paper invalidates Legánÿ’s surmise and on the basis of a meticulous analysis of newly discovered drafts illuminates to which degree and with what method Erkel, then as always pressed for time, was helped out by Doppler in the orchestration of Erzsébet.

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In 1809, E. T. A. Hoffmann declared that the symphony, in the hands of Haydn and Mozart, had become the “opera of instruments.” This view of symphony, which was echoed by other writers of the period, reflected how composers engaged with instruments through orchestration. This essay explores the use of instrumental sonority in the slow movements of Haydn’s later symphonies, in particular looking at the ways in which Haydn’s approach to the orchestra helped cultivate the notion that symphonies unfolded as dramas. This conception of the orchestra and of orchestration informed the language of musical criticism of the early nineteenth century: Hoffmann’s discussions of musical works frequently take the form of operatic plot summaries, in which individual instruments act as characters. The persistence of operatic metaphors suggests that, instead of thinking of this period as the “rise of instrumental music,” it is more accurate to understand it as the rise of the orchestra.

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In the following article, Jarmo Valkola investigates the originality of the Hungarian director Béla Tarr’s filmmaking practice. Tarr represents European pictorialism that is motivated by the commitment to develop and increase the function and effectiveness of images, sounds and performances that aesthetically formulate, translate and change the effects of contemporary cinema to higher dimensions and qualities of art. Tarr emphasises the selective and manipulative role of the camera in orchestrating his narrative concerns. The significance of the form comes forward, and the photographic dimension of the narrative creates static and momentarily captured intensities. Like Jancsó before him, Tarr also invests the narrative with plan-sequences. Some of them can be very long, involving continuous and intricate camera movements, like simultaneous track-tilt-pans, compounded by the ‘virtual’ movement of the omnipresent camera. Tarr’s filmic iconography sets standards for pictorial filmmaking in the sense of an increasingly personal touch of dramatics defining and distilling a cinematic language that is endless in its search for the almost silent colloquy between the artist’s visions and aspirations. Sátántangó, Werckmeister Harmonies, The Man from London, and The Turin Horse are the films referred in this article.

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orchestration could have been completed at the opportune moment (that is, significantly earlier, in fact as early as 1920) and the initial performance would have taken place at a fitting venue such as in liberal Berlin rather than in the conservative Cologne

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This essay joins with others in exposing and critiquing problems with neoliberalism in the orchestration of society. Using rhetorical theory both ancient and contemporary that relates rhetoric to the gift and giving, this essay shows the inhospitable rhetorical dynamics of neoliberalism and explores the rhetorical possibilities of transformation through allo-liberalism, a turn to the other with liberality, generosity, and love.

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The paper examines the primary musical and textual sources of Ferenc Erkel’s first opera, Bátori Mária. The author comes to the conclusion which is new in the Erkel literature, namely that the composer who was working under pressure of time in the weeks immediately preceding the premiere scheduled for 8 August 1840, availed himself of the help of József Szerdahelyi, a fellow-composer at the Hungarian National Theatre who collaborated in the orchestration of Act 2. Even so, Erkel considered the version presented at the first night as far from finished. He felt compelled to withdraw the opera, and to offer it again to the audiences with substantial emendations in January 1841. Modifications and additions at later stages of the twenty years long performance history of the opera are also analyzed.

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Abstract

Maurice Ravel uses a lot of musical elements in his ballet Daphnis et Chloé that appear in Bartók's Ballet The Wooden Prince. So are the instrumentation and especially the orchestration (particularly at the beginning of these two works: the wake-up of the nature that is almost the same, and the “grotesque” moments). The themes of the different episodes that build the ballet seem to be the same in their conception, and we can add that the main themes (love in Daphnis and the prince in The Wooden Prince) are twin. Their roots are the same, so the idea that Ravel influenced Bartók looks likely. Even if there is no real proof, like e.g. a letter by Bartók about Daphnis et Chloé. A comparison of the two works seems to suggest that Ravel's work really had an influence on Bartók's Wooden Prince.

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With the possible exception of very simple viruses, most viruses appear to encode at least one virus specific endopeptidase. In addition to facilitating the orchestrated fragmentation of polyproteins of RNA viruses, these proteolytic enzymes may also be involved in the suppression of host protein synthesis, the regulation of virus assembly, the egress and subsequent uncoating in another cycle of infection of both RNA and DNA viruses. The endopeptidase encoded by adenoviruses (AVP or adenain) appears to be involved in several of these functions. Most of the literature concerns the protease of human adenovirus type 2, but there are good reasons to believe that the proteases of other adenovirus serotypes will be very similar. For a review see Weber [1, 2].

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Abstract  

This essay discusses how exilic narration is used to explore personal and communal experience by Syl Cheney-Coker in Concerto for an Exile. It also focuses on how an autobiographer becomes a representative construct of a community in the process of telling personal tales as could be seen in the exposition of displacement orchestrated by colonial and postcolonial tendencies in Sierra-Leone. The poet juxtaposes the historical template of Sierra-Leone and his exilic experience to place on record the moral, cultural, political and economic consequences of colonial domination. The essay maintains that there is a noticeable symbiotic relationship between a writer and the site of his/her artistic production and that exilic narration privileges the autobiographical mode as it draws from personal experience to accentuate the collective interest of a community.

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1889 the Weimar Theatre intendant invited Richard Strauss to join the staff of the Hofoper as second Kapellmeister. Weimar was a tempting proposition for the recent convert to the New German School. The Lisztian effect was soon make itself felt in Strauss symphonic works. His Liszt studies were crucial to his musical development. Weimar offered him the opportunitiy to translate theory into practice. Liszt's orchestral music had been largely shunned and despised in the great tratidional performing centres of Europe during his life-time. He occupied a more commanding position in Munich's concert life (1894–99). In the Akademie season 1894–95 Strauss conducted in Berlin. He actively supported Liszt's music (Mephisto-Waltz, Die Ideale, Mazeppa, 2nd Piano Concerto). It was undoubtedly Liszt's perception of the complementary nature of form and expression that was attractive to Strauss. Form and content apart, Strauss's was also intrigued by Liszt's unconventional harmonic procedures and, by his indiviual style of orchestration. In 1898 Strauss moved to Berlin as erster königliche Kapellmeister at the Staatsoper. His modern concerts (1910–1903) featured Liszt symphonic poems. His admiration for Liszt's music and its seminal impact upon his own work is beyound doubt. His devotion to the Lisztian cause is transparent and was enduring: witness his tireless and activities on behalf of the Liszt Gesamtausgabe. Strauss kept Liszt's orchestral works in the public domain by making them the focal point of his permanent repertoire (Graner Messe, Mazeppa, Mephisto Walltz, Les Préludes, Orpheus, Faustsinfonie etc.). Liszt's music was a life-long obsession for Strauss.

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