Authors:M. Camerini, T. Amoriello, G. Aureli, A. Belocchi, M. Fornara, S. Melloni, and F. Quaranta
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination was investigated of Italian durum wheat from organic agriculture. A number of 661 samples from 13 genotypes were collected within the national organic durum wheat network variety trials during the six-year period between 2007–2012 in five different growing areas across Italy (Northern Italy, Marches, Central Apennines, West-Central Italy, Apulia). Mean temperatures and total rainfalls in April, May and June were collected nearby the study sites. Average DON contamination value along the whole study period was 67 μg/kg, and DON was detected only in 36% of the samples. Noteworthy, 95% of the analyzed grain revealed a DON contamination lower than 334 μg/kg. Maximum allowed DON level for unprocessed durum wheat set by European Union (1750 μg/kg) was exceeded only in four samples (0.6%). The highest mean DON values were detected in Northern Italy (175 μg/kg) and Marches (131 μg/kg). The same was for the percentage of positive samples (80% and 58%, respectively). Lower mean values and percentages of contaminated samples were found in West-Central Italy (22 μg/kg and 29%, respectively), Apennines (3 μg/kg and 8%, respectively) and Apulia (2 μg/kg and 7%, respectively). Statistical analysis (Generalized Linear Model, GLZ) was carried out to highlight the effect of factors like cultivation year, growing area and genotype. It revealed a huge effect of year, growing areas and their interaction, while the effect of genotype resulted significantly but quite less than the other main factors. The effect of the year could be explained by climatic data, which suggested an influence of rainfall and temperature at heading on both DON concentration values and percentage of contaminated samples. Results of this study put in evidence a low DON contamination in Italian organic durum wheat.
Authors:E. Stefanis, D. Sgrulletta, S. Pucciarmati, and P. Codianni
Institute of OrganicAgriculture FiBL, Frick, Switzerland, pp. 135–138.
Murphy, K.M., Campbell, K.G., Lyon, S.R., Jones, S.S. 2007. Evidence of varietal adaptation to organic farming systems. Field Crops Res. 102 :172
Authors:L.F. Pérez-Romero, F.T. Arroyo, C. Santamaría, M. Camacho, and A. Daza
The fruit quality parameters of Prunus armeniaca L. cv ‘Ninfa’ grafted on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and ‘Real Fino’ apricot seedling (Prunus armeniaca L.) were analysed in an experimental orchard under organic management. The study was performed between 2010 and 2012 in the province of Seville (SW Spain). Colour, fruit and stone weights, firmness, soluble solid concentration, and acidity were measured for fruit quality evaluation. Trunk cross-sectional area, main branches, and fruit yield were also determined. In general, ‘Myrobalan 29C’ rootstock produced fruit slightly larger in size and with a bigger weight. By contrast, apricots on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ had less firmness and a lower solid soluble concentration than on ‘Real Fino’. There was little difference in the colour, acidity, and stone dry weights. Trees on ‘Real Fino’ had larger areas of trunk and branches but no significant differences were obtained in relation to fruit yields.
Authors:B. Kőszegi, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, and G. Kovács
The early growth and tillering capacity of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties (Dicktoo and Kompolti Korai) were investigated in a gradient growth chamber. The identification of these crop traits is important under organic agricultural conditions in the selection of new varieties for competitiveness against weeds. The results clearly demonstrate that the initial development of the two barley varieties depended considerably on the plant growth conditions. The temperature gradient was found to have the greater effect during early development, causing significant differences in all the traits at all measurement dates. The results indicate that the two varieties differ substantially for two characteristics important for organic farming. As regards tillering ability, Dicktoo appears to be the more desirable type, despite the fact that it is unable to achieve its tillering potential at higher temperatures. Under certain ecological conditions, the relative temperature insensitivity of Kompolti Korai could be an advantage. As far as early development vigour is concerned, Kompolti Korai is clearly a desirable type for organic farming, since it produced rapidly growing, robust plants in all the temperature ranges. From the point of view of organic breeding, a combination of the valuable traits of these two varieties could be the way forward.
Willer , Helga – Lernoud , Julia (eds) 2016 The World of OrganicAgriculture. Statistics and emerging trends . Frick – Bonn: 2016. Research Institute of OrganicAgriculture (FiBL) and IFOAMOrganics International. The book is available
Lohr: Factors affecting international demand and trade in organic food products, Economic Research Service, USDA, 2001
Minou Yussefi-Helga Willer: The World of OrganicAgriculture 2005 — Statistics and Emerging Trends www