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Organisational change in agricultural transition

Mechanisms of restructuring socialist large-scale farms

Acta Oeconomica
Author: M. Brem

This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of farm restructuring in transition by trying to identify driving forces behind organisational change in agriculture. It focuses on the stakeholders’ trade-off between internal transaction costs and switching costs. The article introduces factors determining the level of these two types of costs, such as the original size of the firm, inside-ownership and the type of production for internal transaction costs, and the remaining asset specificity after establishing the formal property rights for switching costs. The theoretical model is tested by data from a recent survey in two regions of the Czech Republic with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The quantitative analysis characterises the downsizing process of distinguishable restructuring paths of 87 farms. Mechanisms of individual stakeholders’ redeployment decisions are elaborated on the basis of five qualitative case studies. The article shows perspectives of further farm restructuring in European transition countries.

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Presenting the critical theory model of societal development and identifying societal steering media as an important element in it, the paper analyses the forces at play in the reform of the wider public sector, in an economic, political and ideological context, and details the key features of the New Zealand compulsory educational system, including the introduction and application of managerial values and rationality. Concluding the article focuses on the possible range of responses of key actors in the educational process to change.

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A globális termék/szolgáltatás- és munkapiaci verseny kontextusában az elméleti és gyakorlati szakemberek –az 1990-es évtized második felétől –a nemzetgazdaságok alkalmazkodóképess__

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Abstract  

This paper provides a detailed assessment of recent indexed journal publications by Turkish social scientists. We first present information on SCI, SSCI and AHCI indexed journal articles that were published by Turkish researchers over the past three decades. An inspection of publication statistics indicates a considerable improvement, especially during the last five years of the 1973–2005 period that we examine, in Turkey’s publication record in terms of number of articles authored or co-authored by Turkish researchers. In the next step, we scrutinize institutional sources of this improvement, emphasizing regulatory and organizational changes that have both forced researchers to publish in indexed journals and remunerated those who did so. Finally, we provide a qualitative assessment of recent improvement in publication performance of Turkish researchers by focusing on a particular behavioral consequence of institutional changes and its implications for impact that research from Turkey has on global research activity. Bibliometric analysis of articles published by Turkish researchers in SSCI-indexed journals during 2000–2005 shows that recent regulatory and organizational changes seem to have instituted a particular publication habit, publishing in journals with lower impact factor, which was earlier observed in other parts of the world where publication counts were used for performance evaluation, and that signs of improvement in our select indicators of impact are yet to be observed.

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Change is a constant truth in a modern society; an organization no longer faces environments as stable as they used to be. In the face of the stronger market competition, an organization should deliberately consider and make proper responses in the operation in order to cope with the changeable environment and sustain the organizational life. When facing the changes in markets, an organization not only needs to constantly consider the changes in external environments, but also has to face the boycott or resistance of internal members to the organizational change. The effects of Human Resource Management System on Organizational Commitment therefore become critical.We have taken the Hsinchu Science Park as the research sample, in which the employees and supervisors of manufacturers have been randomly sampled. A total of 600 copies of questionnaires were e-mailed and 276 valid copies were retrieved, with the retrieval rate of 46%. The research results conclude significant correlations between 1. Human Resource Management System and Organizational Commitment, 2. Organizational Commitment and Business Performance, and 3. Human Resource Management System and Business Performance.

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Beer, M. (1980): Organization, Change and Development. Goodyear Publishing Company Inc., Santa Monica, California. Organization, Change and Development

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. Hannan , M. – Freeman , J. ( 1984 ): Structural Inertia and Organizational Change . American Sociological Review 49 : 149 – 164 . IDEA ( 2013 ): Magyar Nemzeti Víziközmű-rendszer. A

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After the Second World War, Hungary adopted the so-called Soviet model, which gave rise to significant changes in the state organisation. “Centralisation” and “democratic centralism” are the keywords which described the operation of government and local bodies in the four decades between 1945 and 1990.

Through the change of the townscape of one settlement, this study throws light on how the change in administrative status and the centrally determined settlement policy affected urban development in Hungary, similarly to other former socialist states.

Our highlighted example is Berettyóújfalu, whose administrative status changed from period to period in its 19–20th century history. Today, Berettyóújfalu’s townscape is basically determined by three architectural periods: the era of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867–1918), the period between the two world wars (1918–1944) and the age of state socialism (1949–1989). Out of these periods, the third one was the most significant, as the most important interventions into the townscape occurred at that time.

It seems that in Berettyóújfalu, the appearance of urban buildings has not been brought about by economic forces, but expressly by the change in the settlement’s administrative status. It was this change that influenced the town’s architectural character, which consists of two components: the official buildings and the residential building stock.

In the era of socialism, the construction of housing estates also falls into the category of public developments, as after the Second World War, the system of state organisation changed fundamentally. Local governments ceased to exist, their role was taken over by hierarchical councils. Consequently, urban policy and urban construction became central duties according to the socialist state concept.

The centrally developed industry and the resulting increase in the population was served by building housing blocks with system-building technology. These panel apartment blocks occupied the urban fabric that had been an integral part of the former townscape.

In this way, this changed townscape could become a kind of architectural reader on Central and Eastern European history and urban development of the 19–20th centuries.

Összefoglaló. A második világháború után Magyarország átvette az úgynevezett szovjet modellt, amely jelentős változásokhoz vezetett az államszervezetben. A „központosítás” és a „demokratikus centralizmus” azok a kulcsszavak, amelyek az állami szervek, s mellettük a helyi szervek működését jellemezték az 1945 és 1990 közötti négy évtizedben.

Jelen tanulmány egy település városképének változásán keresztül arra világít rá, hogy Magyarországon – hasonlóan a többi volt szocialista államhoz – miként hatott a közigazgatási státus változása és a központilag meghatározott településpolitika a városépítészetre.

A mai Berettyóújfalu településképét alapvetően három építési periódus határozza meg: az Osztrák– Magyar Monarchia kora (1867–1918), a két világháború közötti időszak (1918–1944) és az államszocializmus periódusa (1949–1989). Ezek közül a legmarkánsabb a harmadik, ugyanis ekkor történtek a legjelentősebb beavatkozások a településképben. E korszakokat és a mai városképet tekintve úgy tűnik, hogy a városias épületek megjelenése Berettyóújfaluban nem a gazdasági erő hozadéka volt, hanem kifejezetten a közigazgatási helyzetének megváltozásáé. Ez befolyásolta igazán a mai építészeti karaktert, amelynek két összetevője van: egyrészt a hivatali, másrészt a lakóépület-állomány.

Az államszocializmusban a lakótelepek építése is a középítkezések körébe esik, miután a második világháború után alapvetően megváltozott az államszervezet rendszere. Az önkormányzatok megszűntek, helyüket a hierarchikusan működő tanácsok vették át. Ennek velejárója volt, hogy a településpolitika, a városépítés központi feladattá vált a szocialista államfelfogásnak megfelelően.

A központilag meghatározott módon telepített ipart, a hozzá kapcsolódó lakosságnövekedést házgyári lakások felépítésével szolgálták ki. Ezek a paneles lakóházak épp azt a városszövetet foglalták el, amely egyébként a maga módján szervesen illeszkedett a korábbi városképbe.

Ilyen módon ez a megváltozott településkép egyfajta építészeti olvasókönyvévé vált a 19–20. század közép-kelet-európai történelmének és városépítészetének.

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, activists, and policymakers have searched ways to introduce sustainability into the education system, resulting in organizational change. Consequently, education for sustainable development (ESD) was developed and its implementation aims at changing

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, D. - Griffiths , A. ( 2014 ): Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability . Routledge New York , 3rd edition. Blaikie , Norman ( 1993 ) Approaches to

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